Fortunately, there has been a growing awareness of these
issues and as a result the world is changing. Nations are now generally more
conscious of the fact that the actions of individuals can have global
consequences. This awareness has arisen as a result of the greater availability
of information. This in turn has re-ignited the debate about how land can best
be administered for the good, not only of individual landowners and users, but
also for the community as a whole. The imperative to re-examine land
administration systems in the context of sustainable development is now
The world’s nations have committed themselves to a global
agenda addressing a range of matters pertaining to sustainable development.
Amongst them are the problems identified above. These problems are addressed
through major international conferences such as the Conference on Environment
and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 whose Agenda 21 has been
re-affirmed in the subsequent international fora such as the Social Conference
in Copenhagen, the Population Conference in Cairo, the Women’s Conference in
Beijing, the HABITAT II Conference held in Istanbul in 1995 that resulted in the
Habitat Agenda, and the World Food Summit in Rome in 1996 resulting in the Food
for All Campaign.
In order to review the contribution of land administration
and land tenure to these international issues, the UN and the FIG agreed to
cooperate on a number of initiatives. As a result of a resolution at the United
Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Pacific in Beijing in
1994, a joint UN-FIG meeting of experts on cadastral reform was held in Bogor,
Indonesia in 1996.
The Bogor meeting resulted in the
UN/FIG Bogor Declaration on Cadastral Reform which recognised that
although each country has different needs and is at a different state in the
development of the relationship between its people and their land, there is much
benefit in exchanging ideas and experiences. By examining solutions in other
countries one can achieve a better understanding of the problems in one’s own
Arising from the Bogor Declaration, a resolution was
passed at the 14th United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference
for Asia and the Pacific, held in Bangkok in 1997. It urged the United Nations,
in collaboration with the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), to hold a
Global Workshop on Land Tenure and Cadastral Infrastructures in support of
Sustainable Development. The proposed workshop was also referred to in
Resolutions of the United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the
Americas held in New York in 1997.
These Resolutions resulted in the Workshop on Land Tenure and
Cadastral Infrastructures for Sustainable Development held in Bathurst,
Australia from 18-22 October 1999. It was followed by an open International
Conference in Melbourne at which the Bathurst Declaration was presented.
The United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs together with FIG
participated in both events.
The Workshop brought together 40 international land
administration experts from 23 countries representing all continents to develop
the Declaration in a series of workshops and plenary sessions. Firstly, they
addressed the changing relationship of humankind to land. The Workshop then
considered the relationship of land with sustainable development, and the
consequent relationship of land tenure to land administration. The changing
nature of land and its critical role in sustainable development was confirmed by
a strong recognition of the inter-dependency of land, water and food. As
background for discussion, 25 position papers were commissioned from these
In considering the changing nature of humankind to land the
Workshop then explored the relationship between land markets, land registration,
spatial planning and valuation. Recognising that new land administration and
cadastral arrangements would be required in the future to support these changes,
the Workshop investigated the re-engineering of land administration systems and
concluded with a discussion of recommendations and an implementation strategy.
This process resulted in the Bathurst Declaration that built upon,
updated and broadened the previous Bogor Declaration. The principal
findings of the Bathurst Declaration are summarised below. Part Two of
this document summarises the Workshop and, together with the position papers,
was the basis on which the recommendations have been developed. Part Three
includes the list of Workshop delegates, the methodology, the list of position
papers and operational definitions used by the Workshop.
The Workshop took note of several of the major economic,
social, technological and environmental challenges leading into the new
millennium: rapid urbanisation; environmental degradation; the changing role of
government in society; widening economic inequity and an increase in poverty and
food shortages; and the economic and social challenges associated with
The availability of reliable information about land and its
resources emerged as a vital issue in managing these challenges. If relevant and
good decisions are to be made by public authorities, private resource users or
community bodies, they must be based on sound information about the land and
environment in order to contribute to sustainable development. This in turn
requires the articulation of principles for the development and operation of
land information and cadastral systems, as well as land registration systems,
which give effect to the principle of sustainable development.
The property rights in land do not in principle carry with
them a right to neglect or destroy the land. The concept of property (including
ownership and other proprietary interests) embraces social and environmental
responsibility as well as relevant rights to benefit from the property. The
registration of property in land is thus simultaneously a record of who is
presumed to bear this responsibility and who is presumed to enjoy the benefit of
relevant rights. The extent of responsibility is to be assessed by understanding
the social and environmental location of the land in the light of available
information and is subject to express laws and practices of the appropriate
Laws should, as far as possible, be interpreted to express
the international concept of sustainability. Nations should be encouraged to
review these laws to ensure that the concept of sustainability is integrated
into all basic rights, responsibilities, procedures and transactions.
Effective land administration is essential to meet these
challenges. In this context, property may be viewed as the rights and
responsibilities that individuals and groups of individuals have to access, use,
develop and transfer land and related resources (such as water, forests and
soils). Land administration may be built around the concept of individual and
shared, communal, commercial and private rights. The focus may be on leasehold
tenures or so-called freehold tenures. What is important is that the rights and
responsibilities are formally recognised and secured.
Lack of secure property rights in the land will inhibit
investments in housing, sustainable food production and access to credit, hinder
good governance and the emergence of civic societies, reinforce social exclusion
and poverty, undermine long term planning, and distort prices of land and
services. Without effective access to land and property, market economies are
unable to evolve and the goals of sustainable development cannot be realised.
In recognition of the fundamental role of property and access
to land in responding to the challenges of sustainable development, the Bathurst
Workshop delegates addressed the urgent need to strengthen the policies,
institutions and infrastructure necessary for effective access to land and
property. Beyond this, the Bathurst Workshop called on the international
community to support an ambitious, long-term program of positive action in order
to significantly reduce the numbers of people around the world who do not have
secure access to land and property rights.
The Workshop fully realised that there is no hope of success
unless a comprehensive and rigorous action agenda is formulated and implemented.
An agenda must be practical, achievable and assessable. The preparation of such
an agenda will require extensive work on the part of the international community
(and will build on such initiatives as the Habitat Global Campaign for Secure
Tenure) and will need to consider a wide variety of policy, institutional and
Any action agenda will first need to address the policy
issues associated with building and sustaining effective land
administration. Core principles must be articulated that promote equal access to
property for all people while respecting the sensitivity to local needs and
requirements. Policies must be formulated that ensure that the processes for
formalising and subsequently transferring property rights are as simple and
efficient as possible. From the outset, the policy agenda must ensure that there
is a balanced and integrated approach to addressing the requirements of both
urban and rural society, to dealing both with land and other resources
(including water, forests and soils). Every effort should be made to encourage
the full and active participation of local communities in formulating and
implementing the policy agenda.
Of special importance will be the need to construct
land administration institutions that effectively address the constantly
evolving requirements of the community. Land administration institutions, in
this context, mean the "rules of the game". These include the laws and
regulations necessary for creating property rights (and the associated
restrictions and requirements imposed by the state or the community), for
registering and subsequently transferring them, for resolving disputes, for
taxation purposes, and the equitable resumption of these rights. They must be
responsive to local requirements and conditions, and be capable of evolving over
time to deal with different needs and priorities. As well, these institutions
must be open and transparent.
These ambitious goals will not be achieved unless there is a
commitment to designing and implementing effective land administration
infrastructures. These may be described as the organisations, standards,
processes, information and dissemination systems and technologies required to
support the allocation, transfer, dealing and use of land. One of the major
challenges will be to build an infrastructure that is sufficiently robust to,
amongst other things, effectively support the goal of enhancing security and
access to credit, while at the same time being sufficiently simple and efficient
so as to promote and sustain widespread participation. The processes for
formalising property rights will necessarily involve significant community
participation whilst the subsequent registration and transfer process will have
to be capable of an evolving response to changing community requirements.
Information technology will play an increasingly important role both in
constructing the necessary infrastructure and in providing effective citizen
access to information. Finally, there must be total commitment to the
maintenance and upgrading of the land administration infrastructure.
Following are the recommendations resulting from the Bathurst
Workshop and the Bathurst Declaration.
Given that more than half the people in most developing
countries currently do not have access to secure property rights in land and
given the concerns about the sustainability of development around the globe and
the growing urban crisis, the Bathurst Workshop recommends a global
1. Providing effective legal security of tenure
and access to property for all men and women, including indigenous peoples,
those living in poverty and other disadvantaged groups;
2. Promoting the land administration reforms
essential for sustainable development and facilitating full and equal access for
men and women to land-related economic opportunities, such as credit and natural
3. Investing in the necessary land
administration infrastructure and in the dissemination of land information
required to achieve these reforms;
4. Halving the number of people around the
world who do not have effective access to secure property rights in land by the
The Workshop in confirming the
Bogor Declaration on Cadastral Reform, extending the professional
debate on desirable land administration and recognising that the community of
nations have committed themselves to the various United Nations Global Plans of
Action arising out of the UN Summits over the last decade, recommends the
5. Encourage nations, international
organisations, Non-Government Organisations (NGO)s, policy makers,
administrators and other interested parties to adopt and promote the
Bathurst Declaration in support of sustainable development.
6. Encourage all those involved in land
administration to recognise the relationships and inter-dependence between
different aspects of land and property. In particular there is need for
functional cooperation and coordination between surveying and mapping, the
cadastre, valuation, physical planning, land reform, land consolidation and
land registration institutions.
7. Encourage the flow of information
relating to land and property between different government agencies and
between these agencies and the public. Whilst access to data, its collection,
custody and updating should be facilitated at a local level, the overall land
information infrastructure should be recognised as belonging to a national
uniform service to promote sharing within and between nations.
8. Improve security of tenure, access to
land and to land administration systems through policy, institutional reforms
and appropriate tools with special attention paid to gender, indigenous
populations, the poor and other disadvantaged groups. In many nations, this
will entail particular efforts in areas under customary or informal tenure and
in urban areas where population growth is fast and deficiencies are most
9. Recognise that good land administration
can be achieved incrementally using relatively simple, inexpensive,
user-driven systems that deliver what is most needed for sustainable
10. Recognise that the unacceptable rise in
the incidents of violent dispute over property rights can be reduced through
good land tenure institutions that are founded on quality land information
data. Good land information underpins good governance. Where conflict arises,
there must be inexpensive land dispute resolution mechanisms in place that are
readily accessible to all parties concerned.
11. Encourage national and local
government bodies to document and manage their own land and property assets.
12. Recognise that land markets operate
within a range of land tenures of which freehold is but one. It is important
to facilitate the efficient operation of land markets through appropriate
regulatory frameworks that address environmental and social concerns.
13. In order to increase knowledge of the global situation
of land administration and land tenure, the United Nations undertake
a study of global land administration issues such as the range of tenure
issues, gender, urban agglomeration, land disputes, problems and indicators
with a view to producing a global atlas and related documentation. Much of the
needed data are already available in different UN databases.
14. Recognising the difficulties in interpretation
of the many land administration related terms, develop a readily
accessible thesaurus, translated into appropriate languages, to facilitate a
better understanding of the terminology used. Further, on the basis of
selected criteria, use this to prepare examples of best practice in the
field of land administration. This can be done using work already completed by
FIG and FAO.
15. In view of the crucial importance of human resources in
the management of land, ensure that there is sustained
education and training in land administration. In particular, international
agencies should seek to develop multi-disciplinary, multi-national training
courses in land administration and make these available at the local level
through the use of modern information technology.
16. International and national agencies, NGOs and other
interested parties to arrange workshops and conduct
studies with regard to such matters as the quality of access to land and
information, gender issues, customary law and indigenous rights, land tenure
systems, interaction between land and water rights, maritime cadastres, and
the management of land administration systems.
17. In order to coordinate foreign
assistance, countries seeking help should play a more active role in the
coordination of aid and prepare a country profile analysis, describing the
status of land administration and the need for improvements. Based on this the
countries should then prepare a master plan to which all land administration,
initiatives and projects should adhere.
18. In order to ensure sustainable development of
territorial oceans claimed under UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea), the United Nations emphasise the need for
claimant countries to develop their capability to support effective marine
resource administration through the national spatial data infrastructure.
19. Undertake analyses and develop
performance indicators that can monitor the effectiveness of land
administration and land tenure systems in relation to sustainable development
and poverty alleviation.
20. That the Workshop and FIG strongly support
the "Global Campaign for Secure Tenure" undertaken within the implementation
of the Habitat Agenda, presently launched by the UNCHS (Habitat), and
commit to promoting activities in terms of this campaign in future FIG
The theme for the Workshop: "Land Tenure and Cadastral
Infrastructures for Sustainable Development" was developed to complement the
progress made by the Bogor Declaration. The Workshop broadened the focus to
include the role of land administration in serving the changing humankind-land
relationship and recognise the imperative to achieve sustainable development.
The title of the Declaration was accordingly changed to the Bathurst
Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.
Delegates were chosen for their expertise and established
record of achievement in their respective areas. Invitations were extended to
experts from, or with expertise in, a range of developing and developed
countries. They came from a variety of backgrounds including surveyors, lawyers,
planners, information technologists, government administrators, academics and
representatives from the private sector.
Initially, the outline of the Bathurst Declaration was
formulated and then the draft of key topics distributed for comment to all
delegates eight months in advance of the Workshop. These were the basis of the
Workshop. Each participant was asked to prepare a paper on a recommended topic
based on the Workshop themes. This was designed to ensure that relevant and
topical materials would be available as a resource for all delegates to read in
preparation for the Workshop.
Chairs and rapporteurs were allocated to workshops based on
their expertise. Each topic was discussed in small workshop groups. During this
time issues were identified and discussed, implications for the future were
assessed and recommendations were formulated. There were specific workshops on
implementation. The findings from the small group workshops were then presented
at plenary sessions to allow delegates an opportunity to discuss each of the
topics. This process assisted the rapporteurs to develop the ideas from their
respective workshops and to draft the wording of the particular section of the
Bathurst Declaration. The drafts from the workshops were circulated for comment
A compiling team was tasked to compile the pre-drafted
sections of the Bathurst Declaration. This team ensured consistency of both
content and style. This draft declaration was presented for discussion by small
review groups, followed by a plenary session. The feedback was used to refine
the penultimate declaration which was circulated to participants for further
comment. At a further plenary session, the final draft of the declaration was
discussed and endorsed.
The Bathurst Declaration was presented at the conclusion of
the Workshop and was then officially launched at the following three-day
Conference on Land Tenure and Cadastral Infrastructures for Sustainable
Development held in Melbourne, Australia.
APPENDIX III: List of Technical
Papers prepared for the Bathurst Workshop
The Economic and Social Justification for Cadastral Reform:
The Latin American experience
Agustin Codazzi Geography Institute of Colombia
Is Technology a Blessing or a Curse in Land Administration?
Professor of Land Information Management
University College London
Sustainable Development as a Global Trend
Director, Division for Sustainable Development
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Cadastres, Land Information Systems and Planning - is
Decentralisation a Significant Key to Sustainable Development?
Professor and Reader in Land Management
Department of Development and Planning
Professor of Department of Land Use and Landscape Planning
Agricultural University of Norway
Women’s Access to Land
Chief County Surveyor
National Land Survey of Sweden
African Experience of Tenure Reform and Cadastres: A Place in
the Global Sun?
Department of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
University of Botswana
Qhobela Cyprian Selebalo
Lands, Survey & Physical Planning
Ministry of Local Government
KINGDOM OF LESOTHO
Land Administration Reform: Economic Rationale and Social
Research Manager – Rural Development
Development Research Group
The World Bank
Cadastre and Land Information Systems for Decision-Makers in
the Developing World
Senior Lecturer - Surveying Program
School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction
University of Natal
Senior Cartographic Officer
Development Information Services Division
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Lessons from South East Asian Cadastral Reform, Land Titling
and Land Administration Projects in Supporting Sustainable Development in the
Manager - International Projects
Spatial Data Infrastructures: The Vision for the Future and
the Role of Government in Underpinning Future Land Administration Systems
Donald M Grant
Surveyor-General of New South Wales
Land Information Centre
Future Cadastres: Implications for Future Land Administration
Systems - Bringing the World Together?
Cadastre and IT Consultant; Chair - Working Group 7.1 FIG
Contribution of UNCHS (Habitat) to the UN-FIG International
Conference on Land Tenure and Cadastral Infrastructures for Sustainable
Co-ordinator, Land and Tenure Unit
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
Land Administration and Globalization
Vice-President (Research & International Cooperation)
Professor, Department of Geodesy & Geomatic Engineering
University of New Brunswick
Infrastructure Reforms: the Role of Markets and Land
Valuation Systems – Agenda for Change?
Chair - Commission 7 (Cadastre and Land Management), International Federation of
Consultant, Land & Property Economics Ltd
Mapping Landscapes of the Mind: A Cadastral Conundrum in the
Native Title era
President, National Native Title Tribunal
The UN ECE (MOLA) Initiatives for Europe and their Potential
Impact on International Land Administration
Senior Adviser - Norwegian Mapping Authority; Chairman of Meeting of Officials
on Land Administration, Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations
Eastern Europe's lessons from the Past and Aspirations for
the Future: Running to catch-up or blazing a New Path?
Head of Survey Department
Budapest Land Office
Head and Professor, Department of Regional Planning
Olsztyn University of Agriculture and Technology
Land Tenure and Land Administration for Social and Economic
Development in (Western) Europe
Paul van der Molen
Cadastre and Public Registers Agency
Integration of Environmental Considerations into Legal
Decision Making at the Domestic Level
Coordinator – Environmental & Planning Law
The University of Melbourne
The Importance of Coordinated Land Administration in the Next
James Riddell &
Land Tenure Service
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
The Marine Resource: Administration Infrastructure
Land Administration Consultant
Professor of Information Science
Academic Director of Research
University of Otago
Department of Surveying
University of Otago
Sustainable Water and Land Management – an Australian
Approach to a Key Global Issue
Department of Natural Resources and Environment
Murray-Darling Basin Commission
Land Administration and Cadastral Trends: The Impact of the
Changing Humankind-Land Relationship and Major Global Drivers
Department of Geomatics
The University of Melbourne
Professor of Surveying and Land Information
Department of Geomatics
The University of Melbourne
A Methodology to Review Torrens Systems and their Relevance
to Changing Societies from a Legal Perspective
Land Administration and Cadastral Trends - A Framework for
Professor of Surveying and Land Information
Department of Geomatics
The University of Melbourne
Department of Geomatics
The University of Melbourne
*) In this glossary, terms are defined for the limited
purposes of this document.
Abstract of title: a chronological statement of the
documents and events under which a person is entitled to property.
Adjudication: the process whereby the ownership and
rights in land are officially determined.
Adverse possession: the occupation of land inconsistent
with the rights of the owner.
Alienation: usually relates to the transfer of property
by the Crown to another.
Allodial title: freehold under Roman law.
Appraisal: estimating the value (often the market value)
Assessment: determining the tax level for a property
based upon its valuation.
Attribute: data associated with a spatial or non-spatial
Boundary: either the physical objects marking the limits
of a property or an imaginary line or surface marking the division between two
estates. Also used to describe the division between features with different
administrative, legal, land-use, topographic, etc., characteristics.
Browser: a program (software) that is used to access
formatted resources via the Internet.
Cadastral index map: a map showing the legal parcel
framework including legal parcel boundaries, land parcel identifier,
administrative boundaries, boundaries and dimensions of land parcels, sometimes
reference to underlying cadastral survey plans, road reserves and administrative
Cadastral map: a map showing the boundaries of land
parcels, often buildings on land, the parcel identifier, sometimes references to
boundary corner monumentation. Cadastral maps may also show limited topographic
Cadastral surveying: the surveying and mapping of land
parcel boundaries in support of a country’s land administration or land
Cadastre: a register of land information or more
specifically according to the FIG definition: a cadastre is normally a
parcel-based, and up-to-date land information system containing a record of
interests in land (e.g. rights, restrictions and responsibilities). It usually
includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records
describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those
interests, and often the value of the parcel and its improvements. It may be
established for fiscal purposes (e.g. valuation and equitable taxation), legal
purposes (conveyancing), to assist in the management of land and land use (e.g.
for planning and other administrative purposes), and enables sustainable
development and environmental protection.
Caution or caveat: an entry in the public registers
preventing certain actions being taken without notice to the person registering
the caution or caveat.
Collateral: security additional to the principal
Commodification: the treatment of rights in land as
Common law: generally restricted to English common law
systems, this law was originally administered by common law courts and was based
on the commonly accepted customs and precedent, as distinct from statute law and
local customary law.
Compulsory purchase: see "resumption" and
Condominium: the co-ownership of property.
Consolidation: the amalgamation of land parcels into
units of a different size, shape and location. In some jurisdictions, it refers
to the planning and redistribution of land into units of more economic and
rational size, shape and location.
Conveyance: the transfer of rights in land. See also
Crown land: a term used in some countries to refer to
land owned by the state.
Customary law: unwritten law established by long usage.
Customary tenure: the holding of land in accordance with
Data custodian: the entity charged with ensuring
appropriate care and maintenance of information.
Deed: a legal document evidencing legal rights and
Demarcation: the marking-out of the boundaries of each
land parcel on the ground.
Digital Cadastral Database (DCDB): term used extensively
in Australia to describe the state-wide digital cadastral map.
Digital mapping: the processes of acquiring,
transforming, manipulating and presenting spatial data held in digital form.
Digital Terrain Model (DTM): a numerical model of the
Easement: a right enjoyed by the owner of one lot of land
(the dominant tenement) over that of another (the servient tenement); for
instance a right of access or for the passage of water or electricity.
Expropriation/Eminent Domain: the right of government
to take private property for public purposes and subject to proper recompense.
Estate: the quality of an interest in property (both real
and personal). The term is also used in relation to physical elements of land as
well as the legal and financial interests.
Fixed boundary: the legal boundary of a land parcel where
the precise line has been agreed and recorded.
Fragmentation: the division of land units too small for
rational exploitation, usually as a result of the system of inheritance. The
process may lead to a multiplicity of parcels for one owner or a multiplicity of
owners of one parcel.
Freehold: a free tenure, distinct from leasehold, in
which the owner has the maximum rights permissible within the tenure system.
Fundamental spatial data sets: spatial data for which
there is a justified need for national consistency by multiple users in order
for those users to meet their objectives. A fundamental dataset may comprise a
number of compatible databases maintained by custodians in several
General boundary: a boundary for which the precise line
on the ground has not been determined.
Geodesy: the scientific study of the size and shape of
the Earth and the determination of positions upon it.
Geodetic framework or network: a spatial framework of
points the position of which has been precisely determined on the surface of the
Earth. The geodetic network is a basis for topographic, environmental and
cadastral surveying and mapping.
Geodetic survey: the process of precisely determining the
spatial position of points on the Earth’s surface.
Geographic Information System (GIS): a computer system
for capturing, managing, integrating, analysing and displaying data which are
spatially referenced to the Earth.
Global Positioning System (GPS): a system for fixing
positions on the surface of the earth using radio-emitting satellites.
Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI): the policies,
organisational remits, data, technologies, standards, delivery mechanisms, and
financial and human resources necessary to ensure that those working at the
global and regional scale are not impeded in meeting their objectives.
Grant: a general word to describe the transfer of
Harmonisation: the means of ensuring a common
understanding of land related information which exists within and between the
components of land administration systems.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the coding language
used to create documents for use on the World Wide Web.
Hypothec: a charge on property as security for payment,
the property remaining in the possession of the debtor.
Information: any data processed, organised or classified
into categories to serve a useful purpose. It can be presented in voice,
digital, printed, pictorial, image, graphical or numerical formats.
Interests: rights in land derived from a particular title
for a specific purpose, such as an easement permitting a neighbouring land
drainage or access, or a mortgage.
Internet: an international network of dispersed local and
regional computer networks used predominantly for sharing information and
Intranet: a private network inside a company or
organisation that uses the same kinds of software that one would find on the
public Internet, but that is only for internal use.
Land: the surface of the Earth, the materials beneath,
the air above and all things fixed to the soil.
Land administration: the processes of determining,
recording and disseminating information about the tenure, value and use of land
when implementing land management policies.
Land information system (LIS): a system for acquiring,
processing, storing and distributing information about land.
Land management: the activities associated with the
management of land as a resource from both an environmental and an economic
perspective towards sustainable development.
Land parcel: an area of land under homogeneous property
rights and unique ownership.
Land reform: the various processes involved in altering
the pattern of land tenure and land use of a specified area.
Land register: a public inventory used to record the
existence of deeds or title documents.
Land registration: the process of recording rights in
land either in the form of registration of deeds or the registration of title to
Land tenure: the manner of holding rights in and
Land title: the evidence of a person’s rights to land,
ownership, certificate of ownership.
Land transfer: the transfer of rights in land.
Land value: the worth of a property, determined in a
variety of ways which gives rise to different estimates of the value.
Leasehold: land held under a lease, which is a contract
by which the right of exclusive possession of land is granted by a landlord (the
lessor) to a tenant (the lessee) for an agreed amount of consideration (usually
money) for an agreed period of time.
Local Spatial Data Infrastructure (LSDI): See "Spatial
Lot: a land parcel.
Market value: the most probable sale price of a
real-estate property in terms of money, assuming a competitive and open market.
Metadata: is a structured summary of information that
describes the data (data about data).
Metes and bounds: a property description by reference to
the bearings and lengths of the boundary lines (metes) together with the names
of adjoining properties (bounds).
Modem: a "MOdulator-DEModulator", a device for the
inter-conversion of digital and analogue signals to allow data transmission over
Mortgage: an interest in land created by a written
instrument providing security for the performance of a duty or the payment of a
Multi-purpose cadastre: a record of interests in land,
encompassing both the nature and extent of these interests. An interest or
property right in land may be narrowly construed as a legal right capable of
ownership or more broadly interpreted as any uniquely recognised relationship
among people with regard to use of the land.
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI): See "Spatial
Ortho-photo/image map: a map that looks like an aerial
photograph or satellite image but which is geometrically accurate.
Overriding interest: a legal interest in land that has
legal force even though not recorded in the public land registers; also called a
Prescription: the gaining of a right by reason of a lapse
Private conveyancing: the transfer of rights in land
without any public record of the transfer.
Property: everything that is or may be subject to
ownership. A distinction is made between personal property (such as physical
objects), intellectual property, and real property (by which is meant the
ownership of rights in land and things attached permanently to the land).
Provisional title: a registered title that should in due
course become an absolute title provided that no objections are registered
within a prescribed period, or that certain conditions are met.
Real estate: land-related property.
Real property: land and any things attached to the land
including buildings, apartments and other constructions and natural objects such
as trees, and in some jurisdictions, minerals.
Regional Spatial Data Infrastructure (RSDI): see "Spatial
Registration of deeds: a system whereby a register of
documents is maintained relating to the transfer of rights in land.
Registration of title: a system whereby a register of
ownership of land is maintained based upon the parcel rather than the owner or
the deeds of transfer.
Reserve: land set aside for specific use.
Restrictive covenant: an agreement whereby one landowner
agrees to restrict certain ways in which the land might be used for the benefit
Resumption: see "expropriation".
Servitude: an easement.
Spatial data/information: data/information relating to
the land, sea or air that can be referenced to a position on the earth’s
surface. It is also the key to planning, sustainable management and development
of our natural resources at local, national, regional and global levels.
Spatial referencing: the association of an entity with
its absolute or relative location.
Sporadic adjudication: the determination of rights in
land here and there, now and then.
Stamp duty: tax on the transfer of property.
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI): a term that describes
the fundamental spatial datasets, the standards that enable them to be
integrated, the distribution network to provide access to them, the policies and
administrative principles that ensure compatibility between jurisdictions and
agencies, and the people including user, provider and value adder who are
interested at a certain level of area that starts at a local level and proceeds
through state, national and regional levels to global level. This has resulted
in the development of the SDI concept at these levels.
Statute of limitations: a statute that limits the period
during which a claim, for instance for the restoration of rights in land, can be
Strata title: title to land which is necessarily divided
horizontally, such as in high-rise buildings or for mining rights.
Subdivision: the process of dividing a land parcel into
Systematic adjudication: the determination of rights in
land on a regular and systematic basis, for example within all of one area at
Tenure: the way in which the rights, restrictions and
responsibilities that people have with respect to the land are held. The
cadastre may record different forms of land tenure such as ownership, leasehold,
and different types of common, communal or customary land tenure.
Title deeds: documents giving evidence of title to land.
Title plan: a plan especially drawn to show the extent of
rights and restrictions of land parcels.
Uniform Resource Location (URL): the standard way to give
the address of any World Wide Web resource.
World Wide Web (WWW): the WWW is a system that allows
users to access resources stored on computers world-wide via the Internet. (WWW
is frequently used incorrectly when referring to "The Internet").