New Technology for a New Century
Session 3 - Experiences on Cadastral Systems
DEVELOPMENT OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM
Dr. Sc. DANG Hung Vo and Dr. LE Quy Thuc, Vietnam
This paper is focused on giving a scenario of the technology development during the last decade and sketching out a prospect for the next future in Vietnam. The technological renovation and development benefited advantages from advanced space and information sciences with which the result is the setting-up of a production line in the following fields:
For the next future the building-up of the GIS-infrastructure and the elaboration of a national GIS- and Land-database had been planned.
1. A BRIEF HISTORY ON SURVEYING AND MAPPING IN VIETNAM
The first map of Vietnam was compiled early in 1490 under the Le dynasty with the directive of the king Le Thanh Ton, of which the initial attempt is for military operations. Time after, the King collected maps and compiled the first atlas of Vietnam, known among Vietnamese as the Hong Duc Atlas. Since then the Hong Duc Atlas served not only for national defense but also for the land management. Thus the first cadastral system, covering the whole agricultural land was organised for this purpose.
At the dawn of the 20th century, under the French colonialist domination, the "Service geographique de l'Indochine" SGI (Indochina Geographic Service) was founded. SGI was responsible to every undertaking in surveying and mapping in Indochina, among these the most striking achievements were the establishment of the Indochina triangulation network and the completion of the Indochina 1/100 000 map series, based on the Clarke ellipsoid and the Bonne projection.
After the liberation of North Vietnam in 1954, the DRV (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) Government founded the National Department of Surveying and Mapping (NDSM) in 1959. NDSM was in charge of basic surveying and mapping implementation in North Vietnam. Up to 1975, the year of the reunification in the whole Vietnam, NDSM has succeeded in:
At that time in South Vietnam the triangulation network, established by French before 1954, was upgraded by the US Army Map Service (AMS), using modern radio-positioning techniques. A new map series in 1/50 000 scale, covering the whole country, is compiled. Several photography missions in 1/30 000 and 1/60 000 scale had been undertaken for this mapping purpose. The upgraded triangulation network and the new map series in South Vietnam are referenced to the Indian Datum (Everest ellipsoid, UTM projection)
During a time frame of 15 years after the reunification of Vietnam (1975-1990), the NDSM has concentrated its efforts in building a unified national geodetic network. Measurements are performed to connect and to readjust the triangulation and leveling network in the two parts of the country in a whole, based on the Krasowski ellipsoid and Gauss-Krueger projection. Elevations are referenced to the mean sea level of the tide gauge Hon Dau, 20 kilometer apart from the harbour Haiphong in the South-East direction. With the assistance of the Soviet Union, aerial photography techniques and equipments can be upgraded, with which aerial photograph supported effectively the production of the 1/50000 and 1/100 000 map series, covering the whole territory of Vietnam. These map series can be regularly updated, based on the interpretation of aerial and satellite imageries. In the same time, large scale map in 1/5000, 1/2000 and 1/1000 scale can be plotted photogrammetrically to support economic development and infra-structure construction.
In 1990, the NDSM worked out a long term planning, aiming at improving the professional capabilities, thus enabling the NDSM to assist effectively economic renovation policies in the country. The keystone of this long term planning is a technology renovation, whereby modern techniques in surveying and mapping, benefited from advanced achievement of space and information sciences, should be applied. Details on this technology development will be described in the following paragraph.
As a consequence of the acceptance of the market economy in Vietnam, agricultural land is allocated to individual farmer or household for exploitation. Thus, cadastral mapping, the only tool used for agricultural and forested land inventory, land registration and land-use certificate issuance, becomes to be of first necessity. The Vietnamese government then decided in 1994 to incorporate the NDSM into the State Department of Land Management (SDLM), thus building up the present General Department of Land Administration (GDLA). GDLA, responsible to the implementation of basic surveying and mapping and land management, is a ministerial, 4-level administrative organisation, namely:
The DGLA spreads out its activities in 3 sectors: state management sector, institutional sector and business sector.
This model of organisation enables the GDLA to mobilize local human and financial resources for the implementation of big surveying and mapping project, especially cadastral mapping project, and in the other hand to be rapidly in account of every change in land use and land management in remote county.
2. ACTUAL STATUS OF THE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
The technology development during the last decade (1901-2000), had been intentionally conducted in various application fields for predefined goal:
3. PROPECT FOR THE INCOMING DECADE
For technology development in the incoming decade we are aiming at two global objects:
1. Building-up the infrastructure for GIS implementation, including:
Perfection of the current "0 level" GPS control network, making it higher in accuracy and more robust in configuration structure. Baselenght in the network is scheduled to be lengthened (100-150 km), observed with dual-frequency GPS-receiver (Trimble 4000 SSE and 4000 SSI), post-processed using the program packet Gamit and Bernese. The network has to be rigorously connected to 06 tide gauge stations, regularly distributed along the coast line and to the surrounding IGS points, at least to the points TAIWAN, SHAO (Shanghai-China), LHASA and GUAM.
All these professional activities will be spread out in close conjunction with the PCGIAP (Permanent Committee of GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific) program on building the precise regional geodetic network for Asia and the Pacific.
2. Elaboration of a National GIS-database
Early in 1995 the elaboration of a national data-base had been planned and approved by the Vietnam government. As a part of this plan, a feasibility study project on the elaboration of the national GIS-database, including land-database, prepared by GDLA, was approved by the National Committee of Information Technology (NCIT) in 1998.
Following-up this approvement, GDLA started carrying out the geographic data standardisation, the GIS/LIS system and network design. The national GIS will be set-up in form of centralized system while the national LIS in form of distributed system. Thus each province (DLA) will possess a LIS for its own, which will be connected in a wide-aera network. The national GIS is scheduled to be completed in 2003, and the national LIS in 2010.
The Vietnamese professionals are satisfied with the result of the technology development, evolved in the country in the last decade. They are however firmly convinced that there will be a lot to do in the up-coming years. As mentioned in the beginning, the authors of this paper would like to give a presentation on the actual status of the technology development in surveying and mapping in Vietnam and sketch out a prospect for the near future, aiming at improving the mutual understanding among the FIG-member community, thus widening the way for useful expertise exchange and fruitful cooperation.
Dr. Sc. DANG Hung Vo
Dr. LE Quy Thuc
12 April 2001
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