Article of the Month - November 2007

Land, Sea and People: Equitable Access to Coastal Resources

Diane Dumashie, United Kingdom

This article in .pdf-format.

SUMMARY

The geographical administration of coastal areas requires appropriate frameworks and tools; but this framework has to accommodate not only the physical dynamics of coastal processes, but also the dynamics of people and the places in which they prefer to live.

The challenge now is better to manage the multi-dynamic changes occurring in this transitional zone. Although the balance often sought is space for environmental considerations, it should also include space that can be shared equitably between different community groups. This requires a future that recognises social justice for a range of coastal communities

This paper outlines a series of ‘Coastal Futures’. These are scenarios, construed from observations set in plausible assumptions of coastal changes over the next generations that impact on the basis of how societies might need to organise and the attendant values they may need to adopt. It is argued that an equitable scenario is one that justly includes a pro poor approach to accommodating changing patterns of economic development.

The continuing growth in international coastal leisure and tourism activities is representative of ongoing economic change and a major reassessment in social values for some peoples. In this ever evolving world, what right to those with economic power to develop coastal resources that to takes access from indigenous peoples and prevents access to their traditional livelihoods?

In the context of equitable future scenarios, the paper seeks to articulate why there is a need to maintain access to key coastal resources for all community groups and how it can be achieved. It explores the questions of social justice that should be incorporated into management frameworks such as Coastal Area Management (CAM). It is suggested that as land professionals, we have a unique role and expertise to contribute to, and facilitate, this process through our understanding of the land administration paradigm, which combines land management and economic development, our ethical principles in order to address the needs of all communities.

It concludes that not only is it morally right, but also necessary to have local community ‘buy in’ to achieve sustainable coastal management, and observes that changing patterns of economic development, while maintaining rights and reservations for original coastal communities, can be accommodated.

INTRODUCTION

Countries around the globe are buffeted by global forces, of which two are atmospheric pressures that change the weather, and changing demographic profiles. Both are dynamic. Each is a product of complex forces and subtle influences but ultimately they are inexorably transforming societies and the assumptions that underlie public policy.

The theme of this paper recognises these two dynamic changes on coasts:

    Tourists travelling to third world countries and residing on coastlines that were previously thought as too inhospitable for anything but subsistence settlements; and

    Climate change altering sea levels and increasing the frequency of natural disasters along these coasts.

 The effects on host communities due to these forces have highlighted the need for pro poor coastal management tools that retain access to coastal resources.

In the first instance increasing occurrences of coastal destruction probably through the effects of climate change, and the frequency of Tsunami events, has introduced a totally new and hugely disruptive dimension to the sustainability of land use (Wong) i.e the risk to the delicate balance of coastal communities– their existence, social equity and livelihoods.

In the second instance, the theme of this paper is the need to explore what framework could bridge economic development, environmental protection and social organisation, both of which act as tension forces in the struggle to find a sustainable answer to the problem of maintaining access to coastal resources faced by third world coastal societies. It is suggested that a potential solution is an understanding of social justice that philosophically accommodates the original coastal community and their need for resource access in the face of the economically powerful tourism and leisure community.

First, as a background the paper sets out the landscape created by the dynamic interaction of land and sea, how people have settled, but crucially the effect of coastal tourism as a global economic force. This is recognition of Space.

Second, continuing the theme of space, multiple use and perspectives of different communities over the coastal zone is explained by reference to social justice and the need to incorporate this into strategic management frameworks.

Third, alternative pathways into the future to facilitate an understanding of a pro- poor management approach to accommodate changing patterns of development are described in terms of four scenarios, and it is argued that social justice must be incorporated into a pro poor approach to coastal area management.

Finally, it is concluded that it is morally right, and necessary to have local community ‘buy in’ to achieve a pro- poor approach to sustainable coastal management, and observes that changing patterns of economic development can be accommodated while maintaining rights and reservations for original host coastal communities.

2.  BACKGROUND

2.1 Coastal Landscape

Coastal Zones (CZ) convey the notion of a land-sea interface, but the most definable characteristic is the dynamic nature of coasts, with the boundary between the land and the sea ever changing, creating in most marine areas the major variable, that of the tides.

Dimensionally, the coastal area has two distinct axis: one axis is parallel to the shore (longshore), and the other is perpendicular to the shore (on/ off shore). There is little controversy on the former, contrasted to the considerable discussion about the latter.

The on/ off shore axis includes transitional and intertidal areas, wetlands, the coastal flood plain and upland of the flood plain, and includes all shorelands that drain directly into coastal waters. Examples over where the inland boundary should be, range from the inclusion of the entire river watershed to one restricted to the immediate strip, and the seaward limit extending as far as the maximum of the country’s jurisdiction (i.e. 200 nautical mile limit). Unresolved difficulties remain between those who prefer to use an ecosystem-based boundary and those who utilise a legal/ administrative/ economic boundary consistent with government jurisdictions. (Penning- Rowsell).

Boundary delineation remains as a significant issue in the management of coastlines. Surely, a pragmatic stance has to be taken on what constitutes the Coastal Zone. It must depend upon the purpose at hand.

Relating to the paper’s focus the boundary is determined by access needs to the coastal resource for ‘use’ of the near shore waters for both leisure activity and subsistence livelihoods, two definitions are required.

          Coastal Zone (CZ) is …

A ‘belt’, a spatial corridor, both longitudinal and on/ off shore: it is a linear strip of land with adjacent open space (sea and submerged land) that are mutually interdependent, but the inland boundary is unlikely to extend further than 1km above High Water Mark. Across this ‘strip’ access is required to the marine resources.

The CZ is a dynamic system of great economic, social and environmental significance. This significance is evident in the variety and types of demands made on the CZ and its resources. So it is important for countries to implement sustainable development and uses at their coasts. Without such commitments there is a danger that the pressures on the CZ will result in lower resources yields, increasing costs of exploitation, or significant environmental damage but crucially also adverse impacts on community livelihoods. Concerted action is needed both to correct past mistakes and to ensure sustainability into the future (Penning- Rowsell).

   –          Coastal ‘use’ refers to…..

People’s desire and need to use the resource, is based on a relationship between humans and other elements of the natural environment linked to survival and quality of life. But differences exist between groups, and these differences often reflect the degree and nature of economic dependence upon and power over the resources of natural areas (Kenchington,).

 

 The purpose of enquiry here is to ensure sustainable community access across the ‘strip’ to the marine resources either for livelihood or leisure. It is the coastal zone, the beach where land meets sea that is the focus.

 

The tradition and sense of public right to coastal use is extremely strong; thus public rights to use marine waters are generally accepted, but property rights on adjacent land often above high water mark, have impeded access to them, which effectively negates them. Specifically public and private use may be in conflict in ecological areas that appeal to tourists seeking a ‘pristine’ beachside environmental for the purposes of holiday, leisure and recreation in tropical destinations.

2.2 Human Settlement

It is well known that the percentage of the global population that live close or near to the Sea is high, but the simple fact is that there has always been a fundamental link between Land, Sea and People.

A reflection on the past reminds one of the equally dynamic historical context of human settlements, where people have always been living along coastal lands. It is commonplace to declare that the coastal zone has long been favoured for human settlement, with population estimates range between 60% and 80% of people living within 70/ 100km of the coastline.

The historical establishment of communities and infrastructure along the coast has been driven by the need to access coastal water for economic livelihood (and communications). It is not surprising that there is considerable development along much of the world’s coastline, including port development, heavy industry (including ship building), coastal protection and increasingly today, construction for tourism and recreation purposes.

Superimposed on this is the increase in the human population changing the demographic profile of where and how we live, work and play. At the beginning of the 20th century, the human global population was 2 Billion; by the end of the century this figure had increased to 6 Billion, with projections to reach 8 Billion by 2035. It is not unreasonable to expect that many of these people will expect to continue to access the Coasts.

This narrow stretch of land and water is always under considerable pressure and subject to competition between private and government agencies for many land and marine uses, too often incompatible, and this competition is increasing. Issues of social justice become magnified in third world coastal areas that are relatively unpolluted and unaltered by human development; but often with subsistence settlements where the poor reside. Global demographic influences are changing such coastlines for those who are economically advantaged are accommodated in resorts the development of which is leading to physical degradation of previously unspoilt areas and leaving the poor community displaced and disaffected.

Characteristically, these poor community settlements are: physically and socially isolated; where deprivation levels are high; with high proportions of older people with higher levels of outward migration of young people; low wage, low skilled economies; with poor quality housing and a poor coastal economy. Excluding the physical location, none of these are unique, but the combination of these characteristics with the environmental and geopolitical pressures that face third world developing states and their coastal settlements are under, does lead to the conclusion that they are in need of an appropriate and specific government-focussed attention with prop poor planning tools to achieve equitable community outcomes.

2.3 Tourism

Two key global changes that Coastal communities are buffeted by are climatic change and shifting demographic pressures, each are products of complex forces and unobtrusive influences but ultimately they are transforming societies and the assumptions of public policy. Each is intertwined and linked, one such linkage is the economic impact as a result of coastal tourism on coastal community livelihoods. A key global force ever since World War Two has been the growth of leisure activities. It became the fashionable industry in the 1980s and today the developed world’s appetite for airline flights to coastal destinations remains insatiable despite an increasing understanding of carbon emissions, carbon footprints etc.

Some of the leisure and recreation needs of affluent and largely urban communities may be fulfilled at distant locations, thus tourism becomes a reasonable and socially advantageous ‘coastal’ use based on appreciation and enjoyment of the environment, improved understanding of other cultures and increased economic benefits to local communities. Tourism can provide the motivation for conservation and lead influential decision-makers in communities to appreciate the values of high environmental quality and attractive local community goods and services. It can generate long-term economy and social benefits locally, nationally, and for the global community.

However, the coordination of long-term sustainable planning and management for recreation and tourism in eco -attractive areas is one of the most important challenges of coastal and marine environmental management. Although the balance often sought is space for environmental considerations, it should also include space that can be shared equitably between different community groups. There is also the need to address the human dimensions of the existing communities that are increasingly becoming marginalised. Consequently, management should incorporate a socio-economic dimension.

Coastal and island states are characteristically experiencing increasing pressure on land and their resources but the economic benefits, particularly tourism and related development are not necessarily benefiting low-income people. In some instances (Dumashie, 2007), these people are displaced from their original spaces and have no option but to relocate and settle in informal settlements with limited basic services, unacceptable environmental conditions and few or no work opportunities – certain none with which they are familiar. A typology is emerging that tourism is reducing access to resources for the local community and is further impacting on the resources that already have a fragile existence.

This is compounded by the forms of leisure activity and their demands for natural resources that are changing with new technology and with different expectations (e.g wetsuits have increased the number of participants in watersports). The continuing growth in international coastal leisure and tourism activities is representative of on-going physical and economic change and reassessment in social values for some people.

Many of the coastal lands and resources that are developed by the private sector have proven to be reasonable allocations, from a conservation or preservationist perspective. But because of the manifestations of the coastal resources as a collective ‘good’, externalities occur. So that development by the private sector that may have been financially attractive have proven to be irresponsible from a perspective of conservation or preservation and the local community perspective resulting in an adverse impact on coastal resources. (Ditton).

Similarly, this also applies to conserving renewable coastal resources essential to the private sector’s development of these resources - there should be an economic incentive for the private sector to husband and preserve them. If the renewable resources are not maintained and protected, the private individuals or corporations are not able to maintain their business [or lifestyles] into the future. Undeniably this is understood by flag ship eco tourism developments (e.g. Chumbe Island, Tanzania (http://www.chumbeisland.com/).

Degradation by coastal tourism development is well documented. Sediments from the construction of resorts and related infrastructure, poor sewage and waste disposal, widespread use of fertilisers to manage hotel grounds, and detergents used in hotel laundries reduced water quality, fish stocks, and mangroves and corals all suffer, with a consequential reduction in the tourism experience and the economic return on investment. But it also has a detrimental impact on the local community population (Tapper).

Community values can also dramatically shift. Typically value slide occurs from increased local community population and increased economic expectation. Increased opportunities without education can result in resource over exploitation, and as the environmental capacity burden is increased in line with village growth so pressure to sustain even the increasing village communities becomes difficult, resulting in, for example destruction of coral reefs and timber.

Tourism in the context of societal development has resulted in alien values having been superimposed upon long established local community’s use, whose value rests in marine resources for their livelihoods. Importantly, both the host community and tourism groups are influenced and subtly adaptive to global forces.

3. SOCIAL JUSTICE

Our world is ever changing with accelerating global forces, but what right of access do local individuals and communities hold over the coastline and its resources? How the impacts of global forces are addressed in order to sustain coastal resources for future generations has become an ethical issue as well as one of proper management because the importance of communities at the coast is arguably paramount to the long- term viability.

The sharp contrast between tourist and indigenous communities and their respective needs to coastal resources is explained by reference to what perceptional value is attributed to access to the resources. This introduces social justice, which should be incorporated into an appropriate framework, and is overviewed here.

It is now unacceptable to alienate the poor, existing communities from coastal resources - social justice is politically necessary for all. It is suggested here, that the means to achieve social justice rests in a joined up community approach that combines policy with action on the ground to conserve coastal resources for access by all community groups

Adopting the ‘Political agenda’ definition of social justice, which seeks to reflect the balance in policy, between environment, society and economy (Midlen, 2007). What could bridge the multiple objectives of economic development and environmental protection as these both act as tension forces in the struggle to find the sustainable answer to the problems of ‘resource use’ faced by third world coastal societies is important.

A simple way of understanding the inter-relationship of multiple community objectives is to take on board different community perspectives of coastal resources linked to conservation of that resource. Kenchington (1990) has considered this. He notes that perspectives depend upon personal judgements regarding the amenity value of the environment, and covers a broad range of intentional human interactions with biological resources and natural areas. Yet articulating this value identifies profound differences of opinion of the nature and desirability of resource use to the relationship between humans and other elements of the natural environment. These differences often reflect the degree and nature of economic dependence upon the resources of natural areas.

Multiple use management approaches may be summarised in a diagram (Fig 1.) developed from Kenchington which illustrates the area in which a decision or group of decisions will conform technically with a requirement to address the concerns of three interest groups: conservation, tourism and livelihood (e.g fisherman) with the ‘perfect’ solution represented by the mid- point of the triangle. This concept is named here as the triangulation of ‘equity for access’ and sustainable use of the coastal zone.

Economic Development/ Tourism
 

Fig 1. the Equity triangle, for Access to, and sustainable use of, coastal resources, - (Developed from Kenchington, 1990)

 

The point is that both communities require the resource to remain intact. Regardless of different community perspectives, their respective uses, now and in the future are inextricably linked. Kenchington goes further to say that many issues involve impacts on the structure, process and amenity. To explain, using coral reefs as a resource example:

– Competition leading to excessive mining of this biological resource for say building material, may cause structural impacts that become increasingly apparent as the resource becomes scarce. (Destruction of the reef leading to death of the reef reduced supply and increased cost of building materials plus irreversible environmental standards).
– It may cause process impacts depending upon the role of the harvested species in the food chain and the extent to which other species will be affected by its decline (fish nursery breeding grounds disappear, support to other aquatic vegetation declines).
– It will cause amenity impacts on those who have depended on the resource (reduction in marine life and diversity, poor water quality).

A significant global force, such as tourism, which increases pressure on resources, illustrates how the nature of amenity can change rapidly. Degradation by tourism will cause wider amenity impacts as the structural and process impacts will affect the fundamental preservation or recreation options, (tourist leisure pursuits are now untenable).

This paper proposes that applied social justice must be the outcome of the beneficial interaction between coastal communities and their need for resource access in the face of market forces such as economic development from the tourist community. Questions on justice ask about the:

– rights of access for coastal communities to marine resources, increasingly this looks at the public versus private needs and benefits
– viability and social status of communities, both the existing, often displaced, host community, as well as the ‘hidden informal community’
– power, capability and rights of communities to engage in decision making;
– role of Central or State government and local jurisdictions in allowing development (i.e. land disposals to overseas tourism developers alienating local communities).

Policy approaches need to address multiple uses over the coastal zone or space, that of existing poor communities that are increasingly becoming marginalised and disaffected from the resources available in the coastal zone.

Recognising this brings the debate to an exploration of which strategic management framework(s) could bridge economic development, community and environmental protection issues.

4. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS

Management implies a system that sets goals and priorities and then chooses the most effective and efficient means to those ends. Worldwide recognition of the importance of marine affairs in nation economics truly began its momentum in 1970s from which it has increasingly moved to a connectional basis of ocean and coastal management.

Coastal Zones are often well endowed with resources as defined by its citizens who have and need access for their local livelihoods,

Post World War 2, the bountifulness of these resources precluded a need for coastal management structures, but continuing large scale migration of tourists as a result of the various amenity values of coastal resources, and increasing affluence in some parts of the world has created a need for a different and more comprehensive and widespread approach to their management. In some cases this need arose from experience of the excessive use e.g. overexploited fishing resources, and in others from conflict between uses. No significant part of the world’s coastal area is now without problems. (Kenchigton, 1990). Understanding the nature of conflicting uses of coastal resources, recognising the problem and being willing to do something about it provides a clearer basis for the management actions that follow.

Foremost, the emergence and formulation of coastal management approaches gathered pace in the 1970s. For some decades now, managing coasts has sought frameworks to accommodate changes resulting from global forces.

Different systems abound across the globe, and are variously referred to as Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), Coastal Zone Management (CZM), and Integrated Coastal Area Management (CAM). Here it is referred to as Coastal Area management because of the wish to emphasis the spatial perspective of multiple uses over the coastal space. Essentially Coastal Area Management is intended to replace the ad hoc crisis responses to marine resource problems with planned, anticipatory and integrated strategies. But to what degree are there frameworks appropriate, and do they achieve a strategic management level?

Coastal Area Management is most simply understood as management of the CZ as a whole in relation to local, regional, national land international goals. The role of an integrated process and the benefits it brings is important to marrying the marine environment with the terrestrial. It may be defined as

“an integrated or joined up approach towards the many different interest on both the land and marine components of the coasts. It is the process of harmonising the different policies and decision making structures, and bringing together coastal stakeholders to encourage concerted action towards achieving common goals” (DEFRA).

Coastal Area Management is inevitably a complex process, and the management and implementation, across every continent, is well documented with detailed analysis of demonstrative strengths and weaknesses. Importantly it seeks to focus on integration covering: sectoral integrations, spatial integrations, integration across government and science and management integration (WCMP).

It is an iterative process of management, a way of planning things in logical stages or actions that take full account of the needs of all stakeholders. It emphasises the sustainable use of the resource base and implies measures and mechanisms for the anticipation, resolution and accommodation of conflicts among competing users of the coastal and ocean areas.

Coastal Area Management has found a number of champions in both developing and developed states, which have implemented or are in the process of formulating some form of Coastal Area Management programmes. Whether management approaches originated in the developed or developing worlds, the principle is that they should respond to specific environmental conditions, development needs, and institutional structures. Strategies originating in the developed world may not be effective for tackling the problems encountered in the coastal areas of the developing world. So, like-minded countries should not only share information and experience, but also adapt them to particular circumstances or create new approaches.

Consider that in reality, Coastal Area Management is an umbrella discipline that holds many concepts, endorsing the need for coordination (Dumashie 2001); but as a process it needs to be realised that further changes are needed. To gain insight by learning lessons from the past will catapult the process to one that fully comprehends the multiplicity of issues in coastal areas while embedding it into a social justice paradigm.

Fundamentally, the process should take account of the needs of people and their livelihoods at all stages of policy and practical development. Above all, sustaining indigenous communities and their livelihoods has to be at the forefront of programme focus. It is a people process, thus action has to be mindful of a collaborative approach.

To accept the ‘social justice’ agenda in order to deliver an agreed and sustainable future for all society, Coastal area management frameworks could combine with a strategic focus found in land economics. The resulting strategy provides a management framework (or road map) for a holistic programme, and crucially must provide a vision of integrated management for the particular coastal zone it addresses. How this is so is explained next.

Land management is the process by which the resources of land and sea are used, and encompasses all activities associated with the planning and administration of land and natural resources required to achieve economic, environmental, and social sustainable development. Land administration functions deal with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in and over land and sea, relating to the interaction of the three areas of land tenure, land value and land use but also including land development This all sits within a country/state context of institutional arrangements and social culture that can be expected to change over time, (Enemark, 2005), but the common denominator is that of the inclusion of local people and their livelihoods.

 

 

 

 

Fig 2. The Land Management Paradigm (Enemark, et.al. 2005)

Drawing from earlier work (Dumashie 2001), it is proposed that a coastal area management framework could be developed which embeds the land management paradigm as a means to facilitate sustainable development. The balance between individual freedom and community responsibility, economic power and the rights of the economically impoverished, the tension between the legal rules and local practice on the ground can be managed through the mechanics of land administration (Hume).

Professor Enemark, has stated the need for the surveying community, “To fly high, yet keep your feet on the ground” requires that social justice be an overarching goal. This will address the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental sustainability through public participation and informed and accountable government decision-making in relation to the built and natural environments (Enemark, 2006).

As a result, the main issues under scrutiny for a strategic coastal framework are the:

– transferability of experience;
– effectiveness of present planning and management approaches; and
– degree of integration of coastal management within the national planning frameworks.
o But above all the,
degree of applied social justice to maintain equitable and sustainable access to coastal resources for all community groups

Considering the future for coastal communities highlights how a healthy and thriving coastal society might be organised to address these issues. This is discussed next.

5. COSTAL FUTURES

The idea here is to describe alternative pathways into the future to facilitate an understanding of a pro- poor approach to accommodate changing patterns of development. Scenarios project a range of possible outcomes and enable people to think about the future in different ways. They do not predict what will happen but identify what may happen. The purpose here is to suggest a set of scenarios about what might happen if coastal tourism development continues to compromise access to resources by subsistence communities.

Coastal futures draw on ideas expressed in Scenario planning tools. This is a way of approaching and planning the future as exemplified by the Mont Fleur scenarios developed in Southern Africa 1991/92 (Kahane). They identify what has to be done to secure a desired outcome, and imply the future is not fixed but can be shaped by decisions and actions of individuals’, organisations and institutions. Plausible scenarios must be internally consistent and based on credible interpretations of present trends, i.e set in plausible assumptions.

In 2004 four scenarios set in the context of climate change and the affect on coastal and river valleys over the next 95 years were examined by the UK ‘Foresight’ panel (O’riordan, et-al. 2006). They helpfully create four story based predictions of resulting social organisations. These have been adapted to create four new scenarios that observe the conflicting outcomes relating to the equity triangle (tourism, conservation and livelihoods) thus predicting how society might need to organise in the future and the attendant values that are likely to be adopted.

The Table below illustrates each of the Foresight scenarios (in bold), the resulting social organisation (in italics) which is then adapted as representative of the ‘push’ and pull’ within the equity triangle between tourism and livelihoods yet sustaining resources.

  1.  

A rapidly expanding global market driven economy with an emphasise on innovations, competitiveness and technological advance.

The scenario involves a sense of socially autonomy

This would create unbridled continuing development along coastlines- with displaced host communities and no access.

2

A greater national based approach to sharing the economy and society, with an emphasis on national dialogue and embedded well- being.

This scenario creates separate communities, highlighted by a ‘them’ and ‘us’ situation

There would be a greater sense of national responsibility for future outcomes, both adverse and beneficial. Generally Central state would encourage eco- tourism run by International corporations, national parks, and a willingness to foster biodiversity; this may promote ‘high end’, elite tourism, thus displacing communities with little if any access to resources.

3

A locally based economy with much more emphasis on social responsibility.

This scenario provides local solutions to planning and environmental management would be encouraged.

There would be local community partnership, probably with international corporations, but socio and eco tourism profits could be diverted to local community settlements. A substantial, high degree, of local capacity leadership building will be required to foster equitable community managed access to resources

4

A global sustainable scenario with a high emphasis on international action and international obligation over all aspects of sustainable development.

This scenario results in a strong commitment to regulation and more proactive management of resources and landscapes to be sure that they remain viable

There would be an emphasise on Coastal and Marine regional protocols signed up by States. This is a good thing for marine & coastal biodiversity, but would require a parallel community policy approach to land and resource management

Table 1. Scenarios (Adapted from O’riordan)

Importantly, the scenarios do not present definitive truths, but stimulate debate on how to shape the future. No one single scenario is likely to operate in isolation, as they may become quite blurred. Each scenario helpfully allows visualisation of the inevitable position of poor indigenous communities by contemplating a future for them.

Understanding multiple access in an equity triangle can be used to adapt the direction of Policy formulation, toward a pro poor approach in coastal area management if social justice is to be an outcome.

The table (above) has two clear messages, that of:

– Society Organisation
We are able to contemplate how national and local communities might be organised in the face of the increasingly large and wealthy tourist adding to population pressure and competing for marine resources.
– Society Values
The values relating emanates from the organisation of society and can be considered in the light of the competition for access to coastal resources on the one hand for livelihood, and on the other hand, for leisure tourism, as outlined in the equity triangle.
The three corners of the equity triangle will work as competing forces. In general, tourism looks to amenity value, while local communities will value their livelihoods.

Economically there is a stark contrast in the relative affluence and life styles of the tourists and the locals, which has the potential to sow the seeds of social discontent and unrest. This may be adjusted by community involvement to ensure local benefits from the tourism industry as well as to maintain access to the common resource of the sea.

From these story telling scenarios, observations can be made that highlight the importance of a holistic society organised with equitable values, relating to access to marine resources.- Some observations of the future for coastal indigenous communities are assessed below

5.1 Scenario Observations

Scenario 1
A rapidly expanding global market driven economy with an emphasise on innovations, competitiveness and technological advance.

Clearly it is unacceptable that there should be extreme social groupings that discriminate against the poor, there is no future here for communities based on indigenous livelihoods

Scenario 2
A greater national based approach to sharing the economy and society, with an emphasis on national dialogue and embedded well- being.

Although this scenario fosters well- being, the question is for whom?
One of the major points is that, regardless of the political system and the ambitious goals for state and regional tourism development, tourism is a heavily community-based industry. It is the community that host the visiting population.
In the short-term, private sector developers’ benefit from coastal tourism, and while they often have the financial resources to install clean technologies, they often fail to anticipate and adequately invest in environmental protection. While some are embracing the sustainable agenda and coming on board in their development projects, greater cooperation with government at all levels is necessary to minimise the adverse impacts from tourism (Tapper).
Inequitable application of values is witnessed as the result of the most extreme global force that of climate changes. Post Tsunami events, as an external force leads to resource ‘grabbing’, where tourism development still carried on as usual near original sites, as the industry response to future threats has been protection, rather than either adaptation or retreat in the form of constructing of walls adding sand to increase height of backshore (Wong). This is expensive and potentially dangerous to both community fisheries, and the tourist industry, but critically may leave the local community without access to their livelihoods.

Scenario 3
A locally based economy with much more emphasis on social responsibility.

Costs and benefits often have the strongest impact at the community level.
Specific economic, social and environmental costs and benefits from tourist-related development, or any other major industry, need to be evaluated where impacts are immediate and/or long-term. Some localities gain, while others lose, even though there may be positive economic growth at the state level. At regional and state levels, the relationship between costs and benefits and the needs and desires of individual groups and communities are easily overlooked.
Tourism development needs to be considered as one among many components of community development. Kotler emphasises that the basic principle underlying community development is to create quality environment for people currently living and working in the community. This concept supports good schools, strong neighbourhoods, increased public safety, and adequate health facilities and emphasises the role of strong community-based organisations/institutions in affecting the quality of a place. “Like any other component of community development, if tourism is found to support these outcomes, it should be promoted. If not, it should be resisted.” (Kotler)
At the local level diverted cash income generated by tourism, can be used to strengthen communities to deal with the adverse and challenging impact of tourism, and also involving communities to prepare and plan for post disaster rehabilitation, disaster risk reduction and the design of more disaster resistant settlements. This is an attempt to balance the structural, process and amenity impacts; but it will need to ensure community engagement, education and building capacity.

Scenario 4
A global sustainable scenario with a high emphasis on international action and international obligation over all aspects of sustainable development.

There are very good reasons to pursue International agreements and to seek regional partnerships. Sharing lessons, as well as facilitating relationships on a number of counts, technical and scientific cooperation and wider understanding, will obtain strength and value.
The equity triangle ‘pull’ must not err too extremely toward conservation; the authorities should address the natural aspirations for appropriate development for indigenous communities. Thus a parallel community approach to land and resource management is needed.
Ultimately the public and private sectors (local and national) should together determine how marine pollution from tourism is controlled. But international and regional agencies must play an important role in defining coordinating, supporting, implementing and monitoring the action and the relevant groups of countries.
The organisation in the wider Caribbean has made a good start. Specifically, Coastal Area Management regional cooperation already exists in the Caribbean Network, which is strong, with international agreements relating to:
- Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP), administered by UNEP;
- UNESCO, Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands Programme (CSI).

5.2 Scenario assessment

In summary it is suggested that scenario 3 is right, as it is necessary to have local community ‘buy in’ to achieve sustainable coastal management, and observes that changing patterns of economic development can be accommodated while maintaining rights and reservations for original host coastal communities.

The challenge is that Sustainability requires community engagement, at all levels, for rich and poor alike. Ultimately, the impact of the tourism population pressure on indigenous people’s lives can be greatly reduced by effective forward planning and good governance, but that involves adherence to principles of social justice at all administrative levels.

This is difficult - it requires good governance systems to maintain a strategic, global view interacting with the international community, on forces that pull, such as environmental, but also forces that push - in this case tourism markets, at the same time, achieving acceptable outcomes at the local community level.

6. A PRO-POOR COASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT APPROACH

It is argued above, that a social justice scenario is one that includes a pro poor approach to policy to accommodate changing patterns of economic development. It is also argued that a strategic framework for effective policy and programme development will be achieved by integrating the land paradigm principles with Coastal Area management. The principles and tools needed to do this are explained here.

A way forward is one in which the government policies are sustainable and the country takes a path of inclusive growth and democracy. Mont Fleur scenarios called this the ‘Flight of Flamingos’ (Kahane). The flight cannot take off without significant social buy in- this requires a policy mind set from all community groups - Government, Host communities, NGO’s, Professionals etc, to change policy and planning approaches.

Effective planning requires a local, bottom up approach, building from two bases:
– the ecological basis of the best available understanding of the natural system and processes of the area. which means engaging with local and specialist knowledge; and
– the socio-economic basis of the needs and expectations of those who use, rely on or value the resources of the area. This often involves research and community educations in order to demonstrate the cause and effect of human impacts and to demonstrate that management has the potential to halt or reverse decline in amenity.

This will require tools that foster collaboration, communication, building capacity as well as education.

6.1 Guiding Principles

The Coastal Management paradigm requires change, and to achieve scaled up effectiveness it needs to recognise the multiplicity of issues of land and sea; be it resource use, capacity, administration, registration of rights and planning. Above all land, sea and people need to be better managed in a spatial aware manner.

Many of the existing principles and ideas of Coastal Management have come from economically advanced countries where the coastal communities are often educated and law abiding and where institutional structures are available. Taking the tsunami-affected community example, above, with the competing demands of fishery and tourism communities then, one is dealing with poorly educated communities and highly profit-orientated entrepreneurs, respectively, each of which has widely different skills and resources and each of which needs different treatment if both their aspirations are to be met (Wong).

An approach must focus on pro poor tools, but these must be practice-based, and
Tool kits with a range of initiatives. Noting that the best practitioners attempt to describe what should be done, but wise practitioners accept that in the real world there is always going to be some compromises. What must be avoided is that economic power overrides indigenous rights and needs, and national and local governments need to be seen to protect all of their citizens.

We need to encourage those who are responsible or potentially so, to think ahead, to see the big picture, be flexible and adaptable, to work with nature rather than battling against it, to develop systems in preparation for rare but devastating events, to use a combination of instruments, get all stakeholders involved, and to develop local solutions to local problems. The toolkit will need the ability to deliver Coastal Area Management at various scales from regional, national to local levels and be adaptable to a range of circumstances (WCMP).

It is important for different community groups and government authorities to work in partnership and to establish a shared vision. The price of not sharing this vision is that coastal management fails, as different groups have competing coastal management strategies. Local opposition to change can be seen as a barrier to coastal management – admittedly one which can often be easily overcome by government force, however, this ignores both the social justice and sustainability paradigms which cannot be justified morally.

6.2 Building capacity

Perhaps the strongest tool rests within the capacity of people working together, but it must be established in ways that reflect the Regions’ culture and philosophy, with the opportunity for them to have access to informed advice and support.

It is well recognised that human resources are the most valuable assets of any governmental process, and an integrated coastal management system is no different in that respect. Coastal Management, combined with land management, should be a process driven by all of the people involved, where sustainable human development implies inclusive societal development, and that in turn implies a deepening of the organisational structures of society to achieve equitable social justice.

The present projected and growing pressures on the coastal marine resources as a result of the tourism economic difference is widespread across the globe. Regions experienced in both knowledge base, and technical capacity building have been progressively growing. Expanding this knowledge base is a capacity building challenge that is best address at both regional and national levels, but by collaboration with local and community-based groupings perhaps utilising scenario planning as a tool.

Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, the Environmental Minister for Cost Rica received the first annual Global Ocean Conservation Award, was honoured on World Ocean day in June 2005 (www/defyingoceansend.org). The 2005 presidential address noted that Cost Rica has a strong tradition of being a leader in global environmental issues and Mr. Rodriguez extended his countries influence and visions across the oceans, with his leadership in both UN and Regional negotiations (San Jose declaration). Indeed he is claimed as an ocean steward (Earle).

In the wider Caribbean region, headline meetings have included the:

– International workshop on New Directions in management capacity building for sustainable coastal and ocean management in the wider Caribbean (Cuba 1998) which focussed upon reviewing the extent of capacity building, establishing regional institutions and identifying strategic directions and, as a follow up, identifying partnerships.
– Conference of Parties to the Conventions on Wetlands in May 1999 held in San Jose, and
– Hemispheric IDNDR meeting for the Americas: Towards Disaster Reduction in the 21st Centaury June 1999 San Jose.

Perhaps nothing is more central to achieving the goals of Coastal Area Management than developing skilled practitioners who are able to catalyse, lead and manage coastal programmes, across a range of socio-economic cultures. The challenging question is how to develop this capacity? Once skills are developed, how can favourable enabling conditions through Institutions be related so that they can be effectively applied?

Leaving the responsibility for the sharing of this best practice with regions and sub regions is not an adequate response, as coastal communities will also benefit from the sharing of and may be able to contribute to global best practice and experiences at national level - so government support for a permanent network to facilitate the spread of best practice is needed. In addition this can be done outside government, using professional expertise and by international and/or regional organisations such as Federation International Geometric (FIG).

7. CONCLUSIONS

We are facing an uncertain future with perhaps the most single cataclysmic global force of climate change. But there are others, which can devastate communities and damage our fragile eco-system, and it will not serve us well if we choose to ignore or run away from problems affecting coastal communities. This will require pro poor institutional tools.

Drawing on coastal futures led to the observation that it is unacceptable to alienate poor communities and that maintaining access for everyone to use key coastal resources is an imperative. To achieve this it is necessary to:

– Incorporate Social justice into Coastal management frameworks
– Understand and disseminate knowledge benefits of the land management paradigm, as a means to integrate the needs of communities into strategies that combine policy with implementation and action on the ground;
– Crucially progress to community ‘buy in’ to achieve satisfactory coastal management and to achieve social justice, and
– Embrace changing patterns of economic development, but maintaining rights and reservations for existing coastal communities to marine resources.

Change is inevitable, to what extent we can only guess, but we should neither be frightened of it nor shrink from addressing it. We need to change both the mindset and the toolkit for managing global forces in coastal areas. We need to keep an open mind and embrace that change in the best interests of all peoples and for future generations and, most importantly we must use every tool at our disposal for sound, effective, rational and unencumbered coastal management, rooted in a socially just framework.

Any debate and subsequent framework must acknowledge the rights of, and engage with Coastal communities. Ultimately it is the political will that will promote a pro- poor approach. As stated By Kofi Annan (UNESCO):

“We already have the technical skills to halt destructive trends and to place our economies on a more sustainable footing. It is not knowledge and scientific research, but political and economic factors that will determine whether or not the wisdom accumulating in our laboratories and libraries will be put into practice. Challenges such as climate change and population growth are testing not only our imagination, but also our will.” Kofi Annan

Governments should fully respect the unique role and range of activities undertaken by coastal communities and landowners and protect them in the face of international economic pressure. The symbiotic relationship of these communities and the marine environment means that there are clear economic justifications for their continued involvement to achieve a balance in both sustainable environmental outcomes and social justice.

Finally to address the questions posed at the outset, communities:

– Do have a right of access now and for future generations
– With support can be viable and regain a social standing
– Genuinely could engage, given the Mont Fleur exempla, and
– Require the facilitating role of Government and Professionals to encourage the process.

As an inclusive democratic and pro poor approach to growth, this will be the flight of the Flamingo’s, as Flamingos characteristically take off slowly, fly high, and fly together (Kahane).

REFERENCES
  • Ditton B, Seymore, J.L, Swanson, GC: Coastal Resources Management; Beyond Bureaucracy and the Market, Lexington.
  • Dumashie, D. (2001): Strategic management of the Coast. PhD Thesis. University of Wales, Cardiff.
  • Dumashie, D. (2007): RICS Education Trust Project Proposal, Pro poor tools for Coastal Communities in Zanzibar.
  • Earle, S. (2005): Reported in Defying Oceans End, www/defyingoceansendorg/goca_winners2005
  • Enemark, S. et.al. (2005): Building Modern Land Administration Systems in Developed Economies. Journal of Spatial Science, Perth, Australia, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp 51-68.
  • Enemark, S. (2006): Presidential Address, FIG Congress, Munich 2006
  • Home, R. (2007): Professor of Land Management Anglia Ruskin University, CASLE Journal 2007
  • Kahane, A. (undated): The Mont Fleur Scenarios, Journal Deeper News Vol. 7 Number 1.
  • Kenchington, R.A. (1990) Managing Marine Environments, Taylor & Francis New York
  • Kotler, (1996): Quoted by Timothy Tyrrell, Journal Intercoast Network, Spring 1998
  • Midlen, A. (2007): Journal, The Edge Spring 2007, CoastNet
  • O’riordan, T. and Milligan, J. (2006): Tyndall Centres University of East Anglia, Journal The Edge Winter 2006, Coastnet.
  • Penning- Rowsell E.C. (1993): CZM Selected Case Studies, 1993, OECD
  • Tapper, R. (1998): Environment Business & Development Group, Kingston upon Thames, Journal Intercoast Network Fall 1998.
  • UNESCO: Message from the Secretary of the UN 5th June 2001, www/unesco.org/csi.
  • WCMP: www/walescoastalpartnership.org.uk.
  • Wong., P.P (undated): Tsunami Challenge, Coastal Society Newsletter TCS 37 (4).
  • DEFRA/ Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, UK (2006): Promoting an integrated approach to Management of the coastal zone in England. Consultation Document, HMSO.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Dr Diane Dumashie
Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), being chartered in 1986, Diane has led many large-and complex development projects working in the public, private commercial and NGO sectors.
Working at senior Property Director level, operating across a wide range of urban business sectors, coastal industry (land and marine based) and housing gaining an in-depth and diverse knowledge of commerce with expertise across all property types Diane then undertook a PhD at the University of Wales before setting up her own consultancy practice. She is responsible for managing and delivering urban and rural based economic and regeneration projects within the UK and Overseas, including USA and Africa.
As well as having extensive project experience overseas, Diane is committed to assisting third world regeneration and was over the period 2004-06 Chairperson for Commission 8 (Spatial Planning and Development) for the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG). Diane currently holds the position of chairman on the UK RICS delegation to FIG, as well as a working group chairman on Informal settlements.
Throughout her career, Diane has recognised the importance of member involvement in her professional association. She has maintained involvement in a range of policy market Panels as well as skills panel, and working parties. This is continued at all levels of interaction, including a member of the Environment faculty board, a member of the RICS South West Regional Board and Local association, responsible for delivering CPD to professional in the Wessex area.
Diane is also an external examiner at Portsmouth University monitoring and evaluating the
postgraduate degrees in Property Development and Coastal Resource management.

CONTACTS

Dr Diane Dumashie, BSc, PhD, FRICS, APM,
Dumashie Associates
Keta Lodge
Grange Road, Creech
Wareham
Dorset BH20 5DG
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel. + 44 1929 555 392
Fax + 44 1929 555 392
E-mail: atfchair_p@ymail.com

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