Questionnaire Regarding Cadastral Projects In Developing Countries

Working Group 7.2 on Cadastral Systems in Developing Countries

Questionnaire Regarding Cadastral Projects In Developing Countries

by Tommy Osterberg

1. Introduction

The main aim of the questionnaire, sent out by the working group 7.2 of Commission 7 is to collect information on on-going projects concerning cadastral issues in developing countries. The information gathered is also supposed to facilitate exchange of information and experiences regarding cadastral progress in developing countries. Furthermore, will successful approaches and solutions of research projects, field projects and daily operations be analysed in order to serve as good advice.

This paper is an account of the answers of the 33 countries that have filled out the questionnaire, namely: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Cambodia, the Czech Republic, China (Bao Ding City, Xinji City), Colombia, Costa Rica (Guadalupe, Zapote), Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Jordan, Madagascar, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal (Kathmandu), Poland, Republic of Korea (Seoul), Republic of Latvia, Republic of Philippines, Slovenia, Swaziland, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Tanzania (Zanzibar), Turkey, Uganda and Uruguay.

When compiling the answers of the questionnaire, the method used has been to present the facts when establishing, maintaining and modernising cadastral systems in the above mentioned countries, on one hand in a brief presentation country by country and on the other in tabular form. The answers give information on on-going cadastral projects and their main focus.

2. A brief presentation country by country

2.1 Africa

2.1.1 Botswana

The main purposes of the project in Botswana are documentation of land ownership, improvement of land registration to support a land market and improvement of land valuation and taxation. The following issues are included in the project; computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping, co-operation with other concerned bodies and land valuation.

Information regarding costs and finances of the project are not submitted in the questionnaire. Mentioned though is that the government is the sole contributor of the project (100%). The cost/benefit ratio is expected to be 1:3.

Statistics

Population: 1 325 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.1.2 Egypt

Egypt is putting its efforts into the improvement of land management of land under customary tenure, improvement of land use planning and land management as well as the improvement of recording land users and owners. Included in the cadastral development project are, e.g., computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, co-operation with other concerned bodies, participation of the people concerned and local administration.

Statistics

Population: -
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.1.3 Ghana (Greater -Accra Region)

The main objectives of the project are documentation of land ownership, improvement of land registration to support land market, improvement of land management under customary tenure, improvement of land valuation and taxation as well as improvement of recording land users or owner. The project includes computerising of land records as well as cadastral maps. This work is carried out by different organisations. Simple mapping based upon rectified orthophotos is used in the mapping part. Title and adjudication legislation is being elaborated and a new origination is set up.

The time frame is two years and the World Bank finances the project.

Statistics

Population: 16 500 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: Over 5 000
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 200 sq. km

2.1.4 Madagascar

The main purposes of the project are to document land ownership, improve land valuation and taxation and to improve land use planning and land management. The land records and the maps are being computerised. The production of maps are done by enlargement of orthophotos. Madagascar is elaborating a new legislation and a new organisation is set up. Registration of land under customary tenure is included as well as participation of people concerned and local administration. The project is co-operating with other concerned bodies aiming at improvement of the environment. To be able to speed up the project, the procedures are being simplified.

The project in Madagascar has a long-term approach and is financed by governmental funds (20%) as well as loans from finical institutes (80 %). The costs for the project are estimated to be 10 US/ha, which includes cadastral surveying and mapping.

Statistics

Population: 13 000 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 900 000 sq. km

2.1.5 Morocco

In Morocco there are two different projects running: a) a Juridical Cadastre Project and b) a National Cadastre Project. The main purposes of project (a) are to document land ownership, improve land registration, support a land market, improve land management of land under customary tenure, improve land use planning and land management and ultimately improve the recording of land users and owners. Project (b) also includes rural land consolidation.

  1. Juridical Cadastre Project: In order to achieve the aiming goals the following issues are included: computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, introduction of new legislation, establishment of new organisation, organisational development, registration of land under customary tenure, land reforms, redistribution of land from state to individuals and finally creation of processes dedicated to the participation of the people concerned and local administration.
  1. The National Cadastre Project: Includes computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, co-operation with other concerned bodies, land reforms in the form of redistribution of land from state to individuals, land use planning and surveying as well as land valuation for improved market information.

The two projects are financed by different means, the National Project through governmental funds (30%) and the remaining (70%) through a loan from BIRD. The Juridical Project receives funds from the budget "ACFCC-Administration de la conservation fonciŽre du Cadastre et de la Cartographie". The cost for project (a) sums up to 8 USD/hectare including cadastral surveying and mapping. The cost for project (b) is 20 USD/hectare and includes surveying and mapping as well.

Statistics

Population: 27 million
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: 650 000 of 1 600 000 hectare are already carried out (the National Project), no figures (the Juridical Project)
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 8 million hectare

2.1.6 Namibia

Namibia is putting its efforts into documentation of land ownership, improvement of land valuation and taxation, improvement of land use planning and land management as well as improvement of recording of land users or owners.

Following cadastral development project are included, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos (enlarged), introduction of new legislation, organisational development and co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies.

In regards to finances and costs, the Namibian project is partly financed by the government (20%) and partly through the donor organisation Ibis (Danish NGO and the Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rehabilitation) (80%). The pilot project will run from May, 1995 until April, 1996. The costs of the project have not yet been calculated. The expected benefits have not been accounted for either.

Statistics

Population: 1.5 million
No. of parcels in the country: 120 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 600
No. of titles included in the project: 600
Size of land area involved: 3 sq. km

2.1.7 South Africa

South Africa has an extensive cadastral project as far as both graphical/ technical and administrative issues are concerned. All issues in question no.5 are included in the project and are ranging from computerisation of land records to the introduction of new legislation and land valuation.

The main purposes are documentation of land ownership, improvement of land registration to support a land market, improvement of land management of land under customary tenure, improvement of land use planning and land management, improvement of recording of land users or owners and finally identifying of state-owned land for redistribution to disadvantaged communities.

The time-frame of the project is five years and the project will be entirely financed through governmental funds. The costs are estimated to be 1 USD/per parcel including cadastral surveying and 0.1 USD/per title. The expected benefits of the reform will be that the cadastral and topographical information will become more freely available and accessible for planning, agricultural reforms and housing purposes. Tremendous socio-economic benefits related to fairly high costs will be the outcome when calculating the benefits of the reform.

Statistics

Population: 40 million
No. of parcels in the country: 4 200 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 4 200 000
No. of titles included in the project: 3 million
Size of land area involved: 1 400 000 sq. km

2.1.8 Swaziland

The cadastral development project in Swaziland concentrates on the improvement of technology and includes co-operation with other concerned bodies. The main purposes of the project are to improve land valuation and taxation as well as improve land use planning and land management.

The project is financed partly through governmental funds and partly by the donor organisation O.D.A. and is running from 1993 until 1996. The costs are estimated to be 15.00 USD/per parcel including cadastral surveying and mapping. The possible expected benefits mentioned are improved land management, collection of urban land tax and improved use of data storage.

Statistics

Population: 850 000
No. of parcels in the country: 20 000
No. of parcels included in the project: all
No. of titles included in the project: none
Size of land area involved: the entire country

2.1.9 Tanzania (Zanzibar)

In Tanzania (Zanzibar) the time-frame for the project is estimated to be 4 years, from 1991-1995 and the overall turn-over is approximately 2 million USD. It is financed mainly by funds from the donor organisation FINNIDA. The government is responsible for 15% of the expenses.

Quite an extensive programme is carried out and includes the following issues: computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, introduction of new legislation, establishment of a totally new organisation, organisational development, co-operation within the country with other bodies, registration of land under customary tenure and participation of the people concerned and local administration.

Specific problems related to, e.g., taking the local traditions and conditions into account regarding new approaches, ideas and methods are solving the relationship between traditional land tenure and state ownership of land.

Statistics

Population: 720 000
No. of parcels in the country: 200 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 200 000
No. of titles included in the project: 200 000
Size of land area involved: 2 200 sq. km

2.1.10 Uganda

Uganda has not yet started up any project in this context.

Statistics

Population: 10 400 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.2 Asia

2.2.1 Bangladesh

The cadastral development project in Bangladesh includes documentation of land ownership. The project also aims at improving land valuation and land taxation, land use planning and management and recording land users or owners. The project concerns computerising of both land records and maps. The project covers 25 % of the country. The project does not include organisational development but there is a co-operation with other concerned bodies within the country.

The time frame for the project is two years and it is financed by the Asian Development bank (80 %) and the government (20 %).

Statistics

Population: 118 000 000
No. of parcels in the country: 25 000 000
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.2 Bhutan

The priorities of Bhutan concerning the main purposes of the cadastral development project are principally documentation of land ownership and improvement of recording of land users or owners. Only a brief presentation of finances and costs is given in the questionnaire.

The project is financed through UNDP and Sida, but neither the percentage nor the cost in USD is mentioned. Nothing is said about the overall turn-over or the time-frame for the project either. The issues included in the project are computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, land use planning and surveying. The expected cost/benefit ratio has not yet been worked out.

Statistics

Population: 0.72 million
No. of parcels in the country: 1 million
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.3 Cambodia

The main purpose of the cadastral development project in Cambodia is to document land ownership, improve land registration to support a land market, improve land registration to improve recording of land users or owners and to modify the land law. One objective of the project is to improve the capability of the staff. The project do not include computerising of land records but a first pilot project regarding digitising cadastral maps is carried out in an area of 560 sq. km. Also GPS has been tested. Photogrammetry will be tested in the near future. There are no legislative or organisational components in the project. The project co-operates with GTZ, German Technical Co-operation, aiming at improved land security and improved area planning and management. The project includes a land reform component with redistribution of land from the state to individuals.

The project is financed by the German Government (4 000 000 DM) and by a loan from the World Bank (500 000 US).

Statistics

Population: 10 000 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: 451 415
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.4 China (Bao Ding City, Hebei province)

China (Bao Ding City, Hebei province) has an extensive cadastral development project, including most of the issues under question no. 5 and all the main purposes under question no. 1. The time-frame for the projects is divided into two periods, the first period lasted from 1987 until 1990 and the second lasted from 1991 until 1995.

The overall turn-over is applying to land planning, land valuation and the cadastral system. The project is financed mainly through levies from users (80 %) and the remaining (20 %) through governmental funds. The costs for the project sums up to 50 USD/per parcel excluding cadastral system.

Statistics

Population in the city: 0.61 million
No. of parcels in the city: 21.000
No. of parcels included in the project: 7600
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 44 sq. km

2.2.5 China (Xinji City, Hebei province)

China (Xinji City, Hebei province) has also an extensive cadastral development project, including all the enumerated purposes of question no. 1. The time frame of the project is estimated to 3 years in order to establish a multi-purpose Cadastral Information System. The two contributors of the project are the government (40 %) and the former Swedish Aid Organisation, BITS now Sida, (60 %).

The cost will be 53.67 calculated in USD/per parcel, including cadastral surveying and mapping, ownership and excluding the cost of equipment, and 89.44 USD/per title including the cost of equipment.

When comparing the graphical/technical part to the administrative, the former has got more input than the latter. Most aspects of the graphical/technical part are included, e.g., computerisation of land records, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, etc. Expected benefits have not been estimated.

Statistics

Population in the city: 145 000
No. of parcels in the city: 5 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 5 000
No. of titles included in the project: 3 000
Size of land area involved: 8.7 sq. km

2.2.6 Indonesia

In Indonesia the main financing body is the World Bank. The project has a multi-functional purpose. The issues included in the project are as follows: computerisation of land records, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, organisational development, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, registration of land under customary tenure, land reforms with a major change of responsibilities for management of land and redistribution of land from state to individuals and between individuals, participation of the people concerned and local administration, land use planing and surveying and finally land valuation with an improved market information and an improved valuation system.

Figures and other information on the cost of the project, the expected benefits, expected cost/benefit ratio are not presented in the questionnaire.

Statistics

Population: 200 million
No. of parcels in the country: 60 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 60 million
No. of titles included in the project: 60 million
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.7 Jordan

The main purposes of the project in Jordan are to be found in the field of land registration, land valuation and land taxation. Issues included in the project are both from the graphical part and the administrative part, e.g., computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, introduction of new legislation, organisational development, etc.

Governmental funds are used to support the project and the changes from semi-manual to digital cadastre are expected to take 5 years. Neither the costs for the project nor the expected cost/benefit ratio are presented in the questionnaire.

Statistics

Population: 4.5 million
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.8 South Korea

In South Korea the main purposes of the cadastral development project are improvement of land valuation and land taxation, improvement of land use planning and land management, improvement of recording of land users or owners. Furthermore, a pilot project is under planning as a part of the Korean National Cadastral Renovation Project.

The time frame for this project will be three years (1995-1997). Concerning the financing of the project no figures are mentioned in the questionnaire. Issues included in the project are; computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, introduction of a new organisation and co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies. Neither the cost nor the cost/benefit ratios are accounted for.

Statistics

Population: 43 million
No. of parcels in the country: 33.4 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 1,800
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 3.1 sq. km

2.2.9 Nepal

Nepal (10 districts) is more concentrated on introduction of new legislation, land reforms, processes dedicated to the participation of the people concerned and local administration. Other issues also include; computerisation of land records and digitisation of land records.

The time frame is based on completion of ten districts in five years. The contributor is the government (100%). The expected cost/benefit ratio is not yet calculated. The ambition is to make the acquired graphical and numerical data more accurate and to use it for valuation and taxation purposes.

Statistics

Population: 18,500,000
No. of parcels in the country: 16,000,000
No. of parcels included in the project: 50,000
No. of titles included in the project: 50,000
Size of land area involved: 15,395 sq. km

2.2.10 Philippines

The main purposes of the Philippines are all six items listed in the questionnaire of question no.1. Also stated is the implementation of the Agrarian Reform Programme. The project is financed (70 %) through the Swedish Government by the former aid organisation BITS, now Sida, while the remaining (30%) constitutes governmental funds.

The issues included in the projects are extensive. The only issues excluded from the ones stated are the introduction of new legislation, the establishment of a new organisation, organisational development including decentralisation of decisions and processes dedicated to the participation of the people and local administration. Facts on cost and benefits have not been mentioned.

Statistics

Population: -
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.2.11 Turkey

Turkey is solely concentrating on establishing a Cadastral Information System. In order to do so Turkey is computerising the land records, digitising the cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry and using simple mapping based on aerial photos. The formulation and implementation of the project also comprises of the introduction of an improved law on land registry and cadastre, organisational developments, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, land use planning and surveying and computerisation of information. What the country is hoping to benefit from the reform is an acceleration of productivity in the economy as well as an automation in the field of land registry and cadastre.

The expected cost/benefit ratio of the project will be 50 % during the ten-year time frame. Mostly governmental funds will cover the expenses at a percentage of 80%. 20% will be paid for by international credits. When expressing the costs in USD the figures are 20 USD/per parcel including cadastral surveying and mapping and 6 USD/ per title including title data collections.

Statistics

Population: 65 million
No. of parcels in the country: 45 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 6 119 567
No. of titles included in the project: 17 800 000
Size of land area involved: 75 000 sq. km

2.3 Eastern Europe

2.3.1 Latvia

Latvia's needs for establishment of a cadastral system are in substance to document land ownership, improve land registration to support a land market, improve land management and improve land valuation and taxation.

To finance these achievements the government is contributing 67 % from the state budget, the former Swedish Aid Organisation, BITS, now Sida, is financing 23 % and the World Bank is financing the remaining 10%. Expressed in USD the cost for the project sums up to 135 USD/per parcel, cadastral surveying and mapping included, and 162 USD/per title.

The benefits related to the costs are at present impossible to forecast. The expected benefits of the reform will be the provision of information on real property rights registration, real property taxation and land management. The Latvians are focusing on graphical/technical issues regarding computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos and administrative issues such as introduction of new legislation, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, registration of land under customary tenure, participation of the people concerned, land use planning and surveying and finally improvement of the valuation system.

Statistics

Population: 2.6 million
No. of parcels in the country: 500 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 500 000
No. of titles included in the project: 350 000
Size of land area involved: 64 000 sq. km

2.3.2 Poland

Poland also has an extensive cadastral development project. The main focus is on the graphical/technical part namely digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry.

The project in Poland is exclusively financed through governmental funds. The cost/benefit ratio of the Polish project is estimated to be 1:1. Since the project/concept is in a preliminary state neither the overall turnover nor the time frame can be given at this time.

Statistics

Population: 38 million
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: -

2.3.3 Slovakia

In Slovakia the tasks undertaken are documentation of land ownership, improvement of land registration, land valuation and taxation, land use planning, land management and recording of land users or owners. To fulfil these tasks efforts are made to use the appropriate technology in order to advance forward, such as, computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS and mapping using photogrammetry. Furthermore, some administrative issues are also included in the project, such as, introduction of a new legislation to improve land ownership, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, land use planning and surveying, land valuation to improve market information and improvement of the valuation system.

The cost for the project is approximately 33 USD/ per parcel and 60 USD/ per title, both including cadastral surveying and mapping. The government is responsible for financing (96,5%) of the project while PHARE is responsible for the remaining (3.5%) of the project. Information regarding the overall turn-over and time-frame for the project is not given in the questionnaire, neither are the cost-related benefits.

Statistics

Population: 5.5 million
No. of parcels in the country: 4.9 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 4.9 million
No. of titles included in the project: 4.9 million
Size of land area involved: 49 000 sq. km

2.3.4 Slovenia

The main purposes of the cadastral development project in Slovenia are to improve land registration, land valuation and taxation as well as land use planning and land management. The pilot project receives 90% of the financing through governmental funds while the remaining 10% comes from the World Bank. The cost expressed in USD is 1.4/per parcel including cadastral surveying and mapping. The project is estimated to last until the year 2000.

Included in the project are the following issues; digitisation of cadastral maps, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, the introduction of new legislation, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, land reforms where redistribution of land from state to individuals are concerned, land use planning and surveying using GPS. The expected benefits stated are in the fields of taxation, land management and marketing of the parcels. The expected cost/benefit ratio will be 1/2.5 in 10 years.

Statistics

Population: 2 million
No. of parcels in the country: 5 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 5 million
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 20 000 sq. km

2.3.5 The Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic improvement of land registration to support a land market and improvement of access to cadastral data are the main purposes. In order to achieve these cadastral aims several graphical/technical as well as administrative issues are included in the project, namely computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, introduction new legislation, establishment of new organisation and land reforms, such as, redistribution of land from state to individuals.

Very little information on the overall turnover, time frame, cost as well as the expected benefits are given. The project is financed 100% through governmental funds.

Statistics

Population: 10 million
No. of parcels in the country: 12,375,000
No. of parcels included in the project: 12,375,000
No. of titles included in the project: 3,705,000
Size of land area involved: 78 866 sq. km

2.4 Latin America

2.4.1 Colombia

The main purpose of the cadastral project is to document land ownership, improve land registration to support a land market, improve land valuation and taxation, improve land use planning and land use management and to improve recording of land user or owners. The project comprises of computerising of land records without a mapping component. The project includes a land reform component with redistribution of land from the state to individuals.

The project is in all financed by the government.

Statistics

Population: 36 000 000
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 1 141 748 sq. km

2.4.2 Costa Rica (Guadeloupe)

The main purposes of the project in Costa Rica (Guadeloupe) are all six items listed in question no. 1 in the questionnaire. Also stated is the improvement of the legal transfer and protection of property rights.

Included in the cadastral development project are computerisation of land records, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, organisational development, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, participation of the people concerned and local administration, land use planning and surveying as well as improvement of the valuation system. The entire country will be covered in 15 years.

The project is on one hand financed through the government and on the other hand through the donor organisation DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation- the Netherlands). When calculating the expected benefits of the reform the following benefits have been stated; improvement of property taxation and land rent charges, serving a large number of purposes, for example, land titling, land consolidation, etc. The expected cost/ratio will be 1:4.

Statistics

Population: 3 million
No. of parcels in the country: 1 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 1 million
No. of titles included in the project: 850 000
Size of land area involved: 51 000 sq. km

2.4.3 Costa Rica (Zapote)

In the other questionnaire from Costa Rica (Zapote) the main purposes of the cadastral development project are to improve land valuation and land taxation, land use planning and land management and recording of land users or owners. This project will cover 51 000 km and will be completed in 10 years. Quite an extensive project will be carried out which will include, among others, computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, participation of the people concerned, land use planning and surveying and land valuation for an improved valuation system. Nothing is mentioned about the cost of the project, but the cost/benefit ratio will be 1:4 and the government will be the only financier (100%).

Statistics

Population: 3 million
No. of parcels in the country: 1 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 1 million
No. of titles included in the project: 850 000
Size of land area involved: 51 000 sq. km

2.4.4 Cuba (Cludad de La Hababa)

The Cuba project includes all enumerated purposes of question no.1. The project comprises only of textual data.

The project is estimated to take two years and is financed by the government.

Statistics

Population: 75 000
No. of parcels in the country: 1 700
No. of parcels included in the project: -
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 83 sq. km

2.4.5 Ecuador

Ecuador's main priority is to improve land use planning and land management. In order to do so a number of graphical/technical as well as administrative issues have been included in the project, such as, computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, participation of the people concerned and local administration, land use planning and surveying as well as land valuation. Regarding the cost and finance of the project neither facts nor figures are stated in the questionnaire. However, the project is completely financed through BID.

Statistics

Population: -
No. of parcels in the country: -
No. of parcels included in the project: 40 000
No. of titles included in the project: 40 000
Size of land area involved: -

2.4.6 El Salvador

El Salvador has all six main purposes included in the development project and also every issue except registration of land under customary tenure (which is optional in El Salvador) has been included.

The costs for the project are estimated to be 66 USD/per parcel including cadastral surveying and mapping. 20% derives from governmental funds while 80% derives from donor organisations. It will take 6 years to cover an area of 20 000 km.

The expected benefits of the reform to be mentioned are the improvement of the legal cadastre from an economical point of view, customer services, services for purposes other than legal cadastre, efficiency of the legal cadastre and the quality of the data meaning more accurate data. The expected cost/benefit ratio will be 1:3.

Statistics

Population: 5.7 million
No. of parcels in the country: 1.8 million
No. of parcels included in the project: 1,50 000
No. of titles included in the project: 85 000
Size of land area involved: 2500 sq. km

2.4.7 Jamaica

The development project in Jamaica is being financed through the government of Jamaica and UNIF (United Nations Investment Fund), the government contributes 50% to the project and UNIF contributes the remaining 50%. The project will be fully implemented by 1996.

In order to accomplish this the use of appropriate technology is required. Where the graphical/technical part is concerned computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS are put into practise. Additionally to graphical/technical issues, administrative issues are also implemented, such as, the introduction of new legislation, organisational development including, e.g., better cost recovery, decentralisation of data collection and changing of organisational structure.

Moreover, co-operation within the country with other concerned bodies, land reform and land valuation are other issues included in the development of the cadastre system, as well as divestment of government land. No expected benefits of the reform have yet been estimated.

Statistics

Population: 2.5 million
No. of parcels in the country: over 600 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 200 000
No. of titles included in the project: 200 000
Size of land area involved: -

2.4.8 Uruguay (Montevideo)

Uruguay's (Montevideo) main purposes are to document land ownership as well as improve land valuation and taxation, improve land use planning and land management. The time frame for the project will be five years and the project will be financed exclusively through the government. The expected cost/benefit ratio will be 7:1. The cost for the project will be 10 USD/per parcel excluding cadastral surveying and mapping.

The project includes issues, such as, computerisation of land records, digitisation of cadastral maps, surveying using GPS, mapping using photogrammetry, simple mapping based on aerial photos, co-operation within the country with other bodies, land use planning and surveying as well as land valuation.

Statistics

Population: 3.1 million
No. of parcels in the country: 900 000
No. of parcels included in the project: 420 000
No. of titles included in the project: -
Size of land area involved: 530 sq. km

Questionnaire of

"Working Group Cadastral Systems in Developing Countries"

Commission 7 of the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), which is responsible for Cadastre and Land Management has formed a working group to deal with exchange of information and experiences concerning development of cadastral systems in developing countries, see the enclosed information about Commission 7.

The Working Group has decided to send out this questionnaire to delegates of the Commission and to governmental organizations responsible for cadastral questions in developing countries. The aim is to collect information on ongoing projects in order to facilitate exchange of information and experiences. The information provided will also be analyzed with the aim of identifying successful approaches and solutions that can be used as good advice for cadastral development in developing countries. The activities of the Working Group will be published in the joint newsletter of Commissions 3 and 7 and be presented and discussed at seminars, and in a final report, see the enclosed workplan.

The information compiled will also be used to spread information about cadastral development and its importance for sustainable social and economic development to international organizations and national governments, among others through United Nation organizations.

If your organization is involved in any projects, programmes or activities aiming at improvements of cadastral systems, we would very much appreciate if you would take the time to answer the following questions.

Please send your replies to: FIG Commission 7,

Ms Agneta Ericsson,

Swedesurvey,

S-801 82 Gšvle,

Sweden

Fax +46 26 651819

On behalf of Working Group Cadastral Systems in Developing Countries

Tommy „sterberg Agneta Ericsson

Chairman Secretary

Questionnaire regarding Cadastral Projects in Developing Countries

The following comments are valid for:

Country ...........................................................................

Province ...........................................................................

State ............................................................................

Statistics:

Population ...........................................................

Number of parcels in the country ....................................................

Number of parcels included in the project ........................................

Number of titles included in the project ...........................................

Size of land area involved ...................................

Filled in by .................................................................

Affiliation ............................................................... Tel .................................

Function ................................................................ Fax .................................

Address .............................................................................................................

....................................................................…......................................

E-mail address: ..........................................................................................................

1. What is the main purpose of the cadastral development project?

[ ] to document land ownership

[ ] to improve land registration to support a land market

[ ] to improve land management of land under customary tenure

[ ] to improve land valuation and land taxation

[ ] to improve land use planning and land management

[ ] to improve recording of land users or owners

[ ] others? Please state these .................................................................................

2. What organization in your country is responsible for the activity?

..................................................................................................................................

3. What is the overall turn-over and the time-frame for the project?

..................................................................................................................................

4. How is the project financed?

...................................................................................................................................

- governmental funds ....................................%

- donor organization....................................% and which organization .........…………

............................…………………………………………………………………………….

- loan from financial institutions.................................% and which institution ………..

.................................…………………………………………………………………………

5. Which of the following issues are included in your project?

- Computerization of land records [ ] yes [ ] no

Further comments ............................................................................................

- Digitization of cadastral maps [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, to what extent?

Area ..................................… sq. km

Number of map sheets ......................................1:1000

......................................1:5000

......................................1:10000

.............................…......other scale

- Surveying using GPS [ ]yes  [ ]no

If yes, to what extent? Area ................................sq. km

Further comments ...........................................................................................

- Mapping using photogrammetry [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, to what extent?

Area ......................................sq. km

Scale of photography 1:...............................................

Scale of mapping 1:...............................................

Further comments ...........................................................................................

- Simple mapping based on aerial photos [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, the simple mapping is based on the following types of aerial photos

[ ] enlarged

[ ] rectified

[ ] not rectified

[ ] ortophotos

- New legislation [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, state the main objectives and topics of the proposed legal changes

(e.g. is it for details of Survey Legislation or Title Legislation or Adjudication of Titles etc.)

...........................................................................................................................

- New organization [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, state the main directions of the organizational changes

...........................................................................................................................

- Organizational development including decentralization of decisions, new approaches to financing (for instance better cost-recovery) and new methods [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, try to exemplify what is characteristic for your organizational development

...........................................................................................................................

................................................…........................................................................

- Cooperation within the country with other concerned bodies [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, try to explain the aim of this cooperation.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

- Registration of land under customary tenure. [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, to what extent and what will be the relation with customary decision-making practice?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

- Land reforms [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, does the land reform include:

[ ] a major change of responsibilities for management of land?

[ ] redistribution of land: [ ] from state to individuals

[ ] between individuals

- Do processes exist dedicated specifically to the participation of the people concerned and local administration? [ ]yes [ ]no

- If yes, give the main characteristics of these procedures and any further relevant comments:

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

- Land use planning and surveying [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes; - how is this carried out?................................................…………..........

- do you use a GIS for this purpose?......................................................

Further comments ........................................................................................

- Land Valuation [ ]yes [ ]no

If yes, is it for

[ ]improved market information

[ ]an improved valuation system

How many parcels have been valued? …..................

Is the information computerized in any way? [ ]yes [ ]no

Further comments .....................................................................................

Please give details of any other issues not mentioned above ..................................

..............................................................................................................................…….

6. What will be the cost for the project expressed in USD?

...................................USD/per parcel [ ]including cadastral surveying & mapping

[ ]excluding -"-

...................................USD/per title [ ]including -"-

[ ]excluding -"-





7. Has there been any study of the expected benefits of the reform. Please state the expected benefits.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

How do the benefits relate to costs?

......................................................................................................................................

What is the expected cost/benefit ratio?

......................................................................................................................................

8. Does the project include some approaches, ideas or methods that you think are of interest for an international audience. If so, please describe briefly what is interesting.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

9. Are there any reports or other written material available that describes in general your project? If so please include the material or give a reference as to where it can be obtained.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

10. Any other comments that you think are of interest for the Working Group? Are there any specific questions that you think that the Working Group should focus on?

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

11. Are you interested in being on the mailing list for the newsletter? If so, please submit your address.

Please add my name and address to the mailing list for the newsletter.

Name: ......................................................................................................……............

Address: .............................................................................................………..............

Telephone .............................. Fax .............................. E-mail ...................................

More Results